Enhancing Farmers' Livelihood Through Adoption of Conservation Agriculture

Enhancing Farmers' Livelihood Through Adoption of Conservation Agriculture

Author: Aurup Ratan Dhar

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783346247506

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 188

View: 798

Master's Thesis from the year 2016 in the subject Agrarian Studies, Bangladesh Agricultural University, language: English, abstract: The research was conducted to evaluate the impact of practicing conservation agriculture on farmers' livelihood enhancement in two districts of Bangladesh. A total of 120 farmers (20 from focal and 100 from control group) were surveyed from Jamalpur and Bogra districts for collecting necessary data and information. An amalgam of descriptive statistics, mathematical and statistical analyses was used to analyze the data. Bangladesh is a role model for the United Nations to be showcased for its excellent development performance to developing nations. Agriculture is the heart of Bangladesh economy where more than 80% farmers are smallholder having land less than 1.0 hectare. The rural economy constitutes a significant component of the national GDP with agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry) accounting for 17.2%. In order to feed the increasing population of Bangladesh, 'Green Revolution' has emerged in the 1960s and priority was given to produce more food through intensification of land usage. As a result, immediate objectives of more crop production have been achieved and crop production has been increased by manifolds. For a shorter period, Bangladesh has attained self-sufficiency in food production. But long term use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides in conjunction with monoculture of cereal crops without any organic fertilizer result in lack of organic matter content that causes a lot of problems to the soil health. As a result, soil fertility and productivity is decreasing day by day. Since the average cropping intensity is 185% in Bangladesh (BBS, 2014), most farms manage about two (02) crops per year which are mainly rice or vegetables. Soil is interconnected with other natural resources such as air, water, fauna and flora. If the soil is well managed, the effects of agriculture on the environment will be acceptable and vice versa. In this context, introduction of resource conserving agriculture, i.e., conservation agriculture is becoming increasingly important in overcoming the problems of declining agricultural productivity in Bangladesh.

The Economics of Conservation Agriculture

The Economics of Conservation Agriculture

Author:

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9251046875

Category: Agricultural conservation

Page: 65

View: 565

Conservation agriculture aims to make better use of agricultural resources through the integrated management of available soil, water and biological resources, combined with limited external inputs. This study examines the financial and non-financial factors that affect the adoption and success of conservation agriculture at farm, national and global levels.

Essays on the Adoption and Intensification of Conservation Agricultural Practices Under Risk

Essays on the Adoption and Intensification of Conservation Agricultural Practices Under Risk

Author: Dominga Elizabeth Canales Medina

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:936211591

Category:

Page:

View: 506

In recent years, great attention has been placed on conservation systems for agricultural production. Conservation practices offer economic and environmental benefits, yet conventional practices remain the prevailing system in some regions. As conservation efforts are launched by different local and federal agencies, understanding farmers' motivations when adopting conservation practices is important to ensure the continuation of adoption through the development of programs that are tailored to meet farmers' preferences and constraints. The purpose of the first essay was to identify the factors affecting farmers' choice of tillage practice at the crop level. Farmer's choice of No-till, Strip-till and Conventional tillage was modeled for dryland corn, wheat and soybean production in Kansas. The results show that tillage decisions are crop-specific and that factors such as risk aversion, baling and grazing of crop residue, crop acreage, and farmers' approach to adopting new technologies are significant factors affecting farmers' decisions. The second essay focused on the adoption of continuous no-till, conservation crop rotation, cover crops, and variable rate application of inputs and the effect that incentive payments, payment mechanism, and off-farm environmental benefits from conservation have on the decision to adopt. This essay also examined the risk associated with the variability of net returns and its effect on farmers' willingness to adopt using a non-linear extended expected utility framework, allowing for the estimation of a utility parameter for net returns, farmer's subjective judgment of probabilities, and farmers' risk attitudes. Farmers were found to exhibit risk aversion, with an estimated risk premium of approximately 3% of net returns. Results also suggested a preference for federally-run programs and for programs with higher off-farm environmental benefits. The third essay examined the timing of adoption of continuous no-till, cover crops, and variable rate application of inputs. This study found that risk aversion delays the timing of adoption of cover crops and variable rate application of inputs. However, the timing of adoption of continuous no-till was not affected by risk aversion. Findings also indicated that farmers who consider themselves innovators adopt at a faster rate than their counterparts.

Soil Management of Smallholder Agriculture

Soil Management of Smallholder Agriculture

Author: Rattan Lal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466598591

Category: Nature

Page: 420

View: 143

Nearly two billion people depend on hundreds of millions of smallholder farmers for food security. Yet, these farmers' lives also hang in the balance due to their extreme vulnerability to the risks of soil degradation and depletion, soil exhaustion, climate change, and numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Soil Management of Smallholder Agriculture

Essays on Sustainable Agricultural Intensification Practices

Essays on Sustainable Agricultural Intensification Practices

Author: Iddrisu Yahaya

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:934637507

Category:

Page:

View: 900

Essay one evaluates two farmer field schools aimed at promoting conservation agricultural practices. The field schools were conducted and offered to approximately 1/3 of all individuals surveyed in a baseline in 2010. These same farmers were resurveyed in 2012 in order to determine whether their knowledge of conservation agriculture practices had changed using a double-difference approach. The approach was also used to determine whether innate perceptions and biases against conservation agriculture have changed over time due to training in the field schools. These findings are supported with enterprise budgets of conservation practices to determine whether knowledge or on-farm economics limit adoption of conservation practices. The data showed that farmer-to-farmer communications are effective tools for raising knowledge. Essay two examines the interdependence of sustainable agricultural intensification practices (SAIPs) in order to better understand the constraints and incentives for the adoption of components and "packages" of components. The impact of accumulated knowledge score on the adoption of SAIPs was assessed using data from 168 participant and non-participant farm households that completed a survey in 2014 and 2012 from the Upper West region of Ghana. From a three-step regression, our findings show knowledge of participant household improved with evidence of knowledge spillover to non-participant. Participation, age and gender of the head of household and experience were factors impacting farm household knowledge score change on SAIPs. The study found that, knowledge score through the treatment effect impacts adoption of SAIPs which are complementary. Younger household heads and experience in farming are also found to likely impact adoption. Essay three estimates technical efficiency (TE) scores for millet and sorghum and evaluates the impact of soil and water conservation methods on TE scores. The paper also examines the sensitivity of TE scores on the distributional assumptions of the one-sided error using data from 518 and 754 farm households producing millet and sorghum respectively from a random national household survey in Niger. A Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier model was used. The mean TE scores range from 52% to 66% and 35% to 60% respectively for adopters and non-adopters of soil and water conservation methods in millet production based on the distributional assumptions of the one-sided error. For sorghum production, the mean TE scores range from 47% to 63% and 39% to 63% respectively for adopters and non-adopters of soil and water conservation methods based on the distributional assumptions of the one-sided error. This suggests inefficiencies in the production of millet and sorghum and hence, the potential to improve output using existing technology. Adopters are relatively more efficient than non-adopters of soil and water conservation methods. The TE score differences in millet production are explained by location of household (rural), educational level and adoption of soil and water conservation. The efficiency score differences in sorghum can be explained by household size, educational level and soil and water conservation adoption. We also found TE scores are sensitive to the distributional assumptions of the one-sided error using the farm household level data.

Conservation Agriculture

Conservation Agriculture

Author: Somasundaram Jayaraman

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811608278

Category: Agricultural conservation

Page: 626

View: 156

Feeding the increasing global population, which is projected to reach ~10 billion by 2050, there has been increasing demands for more improved/sustainable agricultural management practices that can be followed by farmers to improve productivity without jeopardizing the environment and ecosystem. Indeed, about 95% of our food directly or indirectly comes from soil. It is a precious resource, and sustainable soil management is a critical socio-economic and environmental issue. Maintaining the environmental sustainability while the world is facing resource degradation, increasing climate change and population explosion is the current challenge of every food production sectors. Thus, there is an urgent need to evolve a holistic approach such as conservation agriculture to sustain higher crop productivity in the country without deteriorating soil health. Conservation Agriculture (CA), is a sustainable approach to manage agro-ecosystems in order to improve productivity, increase farm profitabilty and food security and also enhance the resource base and environment. Worldwide, it has been reported various benefits and prospects in adopting CA technologies in different agro-climatic conditions. Yet, CA in arid and semi-arid regions of India and parts of south Asia raises uncertainities due to its extreme climates, large scale residue burning, soil erosion and other constraints such as low water holding capacity, high potential evapotranspiration, etc . Thus, the proposed book has 30 chapters addressing all issues relevant to conservation agriculture/no-till farming system. The book also gives further strengthening existing knowledge in relation to soil physical, chemical and biological processes and health within close proximity of CA as well as machinery requirements. Moreover, the information on carbon (C) sequestration, C credits, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, mitigation of climate change effects and socio-economic view on CA under diverse ecologies namely rainfed, irrigated and hill eco-region is also deliberated. For large scale adoption of CA practices in South Asian region especially in India and other countries need dissemination of best-bet CA technologies for dominant soil types/cropping systems through participatory mode, strong linkages and institutional mechanism and public-private-policy support. We hope this book gives a comprehensive and clear picture about conservation agriculture/no-till farming and its associated problem, challenges, prospects and benefits. This book shall be highly useful reference material to researchers, scientists, students, farmers and land managers for efficient and sustainable management of natural resources.

Modeling the effectiveness of the lead farmer approach in agricultural extension service provision: Nationally representative panel data analysis in Malawi

Modeling the effectiveness of the lead farmer approach in agricultural extension service provision: Nationally representative panel data analysis in Malawi

Author: Ragasa, Catherine

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 45

View: 652

The lead farmer (LF) approach has been implemented and heavily promoted nationwide in Malawi since 2009 to support government extension workers and accelerate technology dissemination. Earlier reports have shown that donor-funded projects in Malawi widely adopted the LF approach, indicating positive roles and contributions of LFs. However, national data show persistently low rates of adoption of management practices being promoted by the LFs, prompting this study to look closely at the nationwide implementation and effectiveness of the LF approach. Specifically, we model the effects of farmers’ interaction with and exposure to LFs and farmers’ access to LFs’ advice on farmers’ awareness of and adoption of several promoted technologies and management practices. We use data from 531 randomly selected LFs linked to panel data from 2,800 farming households and, using correlated random effects, model the effectiveness of the LF approach on technology awareness and adoption. This is complemented by 55 focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with agricultural extension development officers (AEDOs) and service providers. Our results point to two major conclusions. First, LFs support and assist AEDOs in their work, especially in organizing community meetings and farm demonstrations, and are also an important bridge between farmers and AEDOs. But LFs complement AEDOs’ work rather than substitute for it. In communities without strong AEDOs and community leaders to work with and monitor them, LFs were not active or performed at a substandard level. Second, results show limited coverage and weak implementation and effectiveness of the LF approach at the national level. Only 13 percent of farmers reported receiving agricultural advice from an LF in the last two years, and only 20 percent reported having interacted with an LF. Our econometric models also consistently show neither the farmers’ exposure or interaction with LFs nor farmers’ access to LFs’ advice had an effect on awareness of and adoption of the major agricultural management practices being promoted. When heterogeneity and types of LFs are unpacked, results show that quality of LFs, adoption behavior of LFs, and regular training of LFs have strong and consistent effect on the awareness and adoption of most agricultural practices promoted.