Appetite and Food Intake

Appetite and Food Intake

Author: Ruth B.S. Harris

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: UOM:39015073911474

Category: Medical

Page: 382

View: 657

Providing an integrative approach, this book reviews the status of basic and applied research, while considering behavioral and physiological influences on obesity and the regulation of food intake. It also covers macronutrients, micronutrients, and meal patterning.

Appetite and Food Intake

Appetite and Food Intake

Author: Ruth Harris

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420047844

Category: Medical

Page: 376

View: 925

A complex interplay of social, economic, psychological, nutritional and physiological forces influence ingestive behavior and demand an integrated research approach to advance understanding of healthful food choices and those that contribute to health disordersincluding obesity-related chronic diseases. Taking a multifaceted approach, Appe

Flavor, Satiety and Food Intake

Flavor, Satiety and Food Intake

Author: Beverly Tepper

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119044895

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 218

View: 482

This unique book provides a comprehensive review of the latest science on a key aspect of appetite control. It brings together contributions by leading researchers worldwide who approach this complex, multifaceted issue from a variety of differing perspectives, including those of food science, psychology, nutrition, and medicine, among others. It is well known that products that require greater oral processing tend to be more sating. At the same time, the orosensory exposure hypothesis holds that flavor and texture in the mouth are critical in determining meal-size. They may act as key predictors of nutritional benefits and so promote better processing of foods. These two related ideas are at the forefront of current thinking on flavor-satiety interactions. Yet, until Flavor, Satiety and Food Intake no book has offered an integrated treatment of both concepts. The only single-source reference of its kind, it brings health professionals, product developers, and students up to speed on the latest thinking and practices in this fascinating and important area of research. Provides readers with a unique and timely summary of critical recent developments in research on the impact of flavor on satiety Explores a topic of central importance both for food professionals seeking to develop healthier products and health professionals concerned with obesity and over-eating Brings together relevant topics from the fields of food science, psychology, nutrition and medicine Flavor, Satiety and Food Intake provides product developers with valuable information on how to integrate sensory evaluation with product formulation and marketing. It will also serve as a useful resource for health professionals and is a must-read for students of a range of disciplines in which appetite and satiety are studied.

Appetite and Food Intake

Appetite and Food Intake

Author: Ruth Harris

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351646482

Category: Medical

Page: 310

View: 797

Nearly half of the world’s adult population is either clinically obese or overweight. Excess weight increases risk for multiple other chronic diseases and represents a major global health issue. Weight gain results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, which can only be corrected if the physiologic and neuroendocrine systems that have the potential to control energy balance are identified. The first edition of this book reviewed knowledge on the intake of micro- and macronutrients, food choice, and opposing views on whether or not there are mechanisms that control food intake. Appetite and Food Intake: Central Control, Second Edition contains all new chapters and serves as a companion to the first by reviewing current knowledge on neuroendocrine mechanisms that influence food intake and glucose metabolism, including environmental influences on their development, with an emphasis on recent progress in understanding forebrain and hindbrain control of ingestive behavior. In addition, there is a discussion on the benefits derived from novel models for exploring ingestive behavior and the progress that has been achieved due to new technologies. Although major progress is being made in understanding the complex interplay between different control systems, the limits of our knowledge are acknowledged in chapters that review the efficacy of current weight control drugs and the relative importance of fat free mass and body fat in driving food intake.

Satiation, Satiety and the Control of Food Intake

Satiation, Satiety and the Control of Food Intake

Author: John E Blundell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780857098719

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 622

With growing concerns about the rising incidence of obesity, there is interest in understanding how the human appetite contributes to energy balance and how it might be affected by the foods we consume, as well as other cultural and environmental factors. Satiation, satiety and the control of food intake provides a concise and authoritative overview of these areas. Part one introduces the concepts of satiation and satiety and discusses how these concepts can be quantified. Chapters in part two focus on biological factors of satiation and satiety before part three moves on to explore food composition factors. Chapters in part four discuss hedonic, cultural and environmental factors of satiation and satiety. Finally, part five explores public health implications and evaluates consumer understanding of satiation and satiety and related health claims. Provides a concise and authoritative overview of appetite regulation Focuses on the effects of biological factors, food composition and hedonic, cultural and environmental factors affecting appetite control Discusses implications for public health

Mathematical modeling in energy homeostasis, appetite control and food intake with a special attention to ghrelin

Mathematical modeling in energy homeostasis, appetite control and food intake with a special attention to ghrelin

Author: Jorge Guerra Pires

Publisher: Jorge Guerra Pires

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 241

The elegant ‘interconnected mechanisms’ by which the gastrointestinal (GI) tract regulates food intake are a marvel of biology, but the redundancy (e.g., several hormones seem to have effects in food intake) of both GI (by means of hormones) and central nervous system (CNS, by means of satiety/satiation signals) pathways governing energy homeostasis poses formidable challenges for scientists trying to take a clear glimpse of this machinery, e.g. for designing anti-obesity and alike pharmaceuticals. In essence, notwithstanding the astonishing advancements made over the past few decades in unscrambling many of the molecular pathways involved in energy (homeostasis) regulation, a rather cloudy understanding of “how all the pieces fit together to function as an integrated system” is what can be found for the most part in the scientific community; we discuss that in part II of the work, in a single chapter divided in several sections for numerous imperative hormones, e.g. cholecystokinin. The current work is divided into three parts: part I is regarding fundamentals of physiology and mathematical modeling employed all over the work; part II is more generic and concerns several hormones (what we have called a “web of hormones”) and part III (divided into three chapters) is more specific, concerning a single hormone (i.e., ghrelin). The core of the work is part III, and to a certain extent part II, bearing mind we provide a literature review based on papers scattered/dispersed all over the medical science literature. The main objective of this work is proposing a mathematical model for ghrelin dynamics (Figure 70), a model centered on the gastrointestinal tract (stomach + small intestine, a two-compartment model), with daily-like dynamics, short-term dynamics; and, simultaneously, proposing a prototype for a systems biology like model (igure 40), a model based on numerous hormones, for understanding mathematically food intake/bodyweight control. Ghrelin is a quite powerful orexigenic hormone discovered in the late 1990s that controls appetite and energy homeostasis, alongside leptin and other hormones still to be investigated in depth by the medical sciences literature. Accordingly, we provide a (simple) mathematical model, consisting of a set of ordinary differential equations detailing ghrelin dynamics combined to gastrointestinal signals due to meals. Numerical simulations are able to replicate in silico available data from the literature; additionally, we were able to fit a reduced version of the basal model to experimental data. The model is developed as a module for a bigger potential multi-compartmental structure, detailing food and energy homeostasis within a sort of "a web of hormones" (see part II and the last chapter of part III). The present contribute is to recommend a primary mathematical model for ghrelin dynamics centered in the gastrointestinal tract, with potentiality to be applied also for postabsorptive states, left mainly as future works. We go on with the model by presenting mainly two variations, further unfolding is left as future endeavor: tastants and stochastic version. We test several optimization routines for the parameter estimation procedure, hybrid algorithms (global + local search), for parameter estimation, based on data published for humans (three meals a day). For all the routines, the best is a hybrid composed of simulating annealing as global search and pattern search as local search. In the objective function (sum of the squared errors, SSE), we apply artificial neural networks (a two-layer feedforward neural network) for generating new data from the data already published, a strategy adopted to increase the data set. In the last part of the chapter about ghrelin modeling (part III), we propose several prototypes for future works based on the basal models; the model used for parameter estimation is a “minimal/reduced” model; we also provide discussions and future works for the minimal model and parameter estimation. Key-words. Ghrelin; leptin; mathematical modelling; food intake; appetite; parameter estimation.

Food Choice, Acceptance and Consumption

Food Choice, Acceptance and Consumption

Author: Herbert L. Meiselman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0751401927

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 418

View: 457

The role of the human senses in food acceptance, the socio-cultural context of eating and food choice, what animal research tells us about human eating, the developments of childresns eating habits, what does abnormal eating tell us about normal eating, the contextual basis for food acceptanc, food choice and food intake, marketing and consumer behaviour with respect to foods, economic influences on food choice, food choice,mood and mental performance, attitudes and belifs inf food habits, dietary change.

Hedonic Eating

Hedonic Eating

Author: Nicole M. Avena

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199330454

Category: Medical

Page: 241

View: 327

Overeating and obesity are on the rise in both the United States and in other countries around the world, despite public health warnings, the availability of diet books, and the stigma associated with excess weight. Recent research shows that excess food intake is, in part, driven by the pleasure derived from the palatability, or pleasurable taste, of food. While many books focus on need-based eating, the psychobiological factors of pleasure-driven excessive food intake are rarely considered. In Hedonic Eating, Dr. Nicole M. Avena and an expert team of contributors explore the behavioral, biological, and social rewards of eating in our current world saturated with hyper-palatable food. Hedonic Eating: How the Pleasure of Food Affects Our Brains and Behavior m II appeal to scientists, medical doctors, nutritionists, psychologists, counselors, and students taking specialized courses that cover appetite. It will also appeal to the general public interested in learning more about topics, including brain reward-related mechanisms associated with food intake, eating behaviors resulting from these changes in the brain, obesity and overeating, and science-based approaches to Combat the changing landscape of our food environment.

Social Influences on Eating

Social Influences on Eating

Author: C. Peter Herman

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030288174

Category: Psychology

Page: 234

View: 219

This book examines how the social environment affects food choices and intake, and documents the extent to which people are unaware of the significant impact of social factors on their eating. The authors take a unique approach to studying eating behaviors in ordinary circumstances, presenting a theory of normal eating that highlights social influences independent of physiological and taste factors. Among the topics discussed: Modeling of food intake and food choice Consumption stereotypes and impression management Research design, methodology, and ethics of studying eating behaviors What happens when we overeat? Effects of social eating Social Influences on Eating is a useful reference for psychologists and researchers studying food and nutritional psychology, challenging commonly held assumptions about the dynamics of food choice and intake in order to promote a better understanding of the power of social influence on all forms of behavior.