Appetite and Food Intake

Appetite and Food Intake

Author: Ruth Harris

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420047841

Category: Medical

Page: 376

View: 984

A complex interplay of social, economic, psychological, nutritional and physiological forces influence ingestive behavior and demand an integrated research approach to advance understanding of healthful food choices and those that contribute to health disordersincluding obesity-related chronic diseases. Taking a multifaceted approach, Appe

Appetite and Food Intake

Appetite and Food Intake

Author: Ruth Harris

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351646482

Category: Medical

Page: 310

View: 130

Nearly half of the world’s adult population is either clinically obese or overweight. Excess weight increases risk for multiple other chronic diseases and represents a major global health issue. Weight gain results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, which can only be corrected if the physiologic and neuroendocrine systems that have the potential to control energy balance are identified. The first edition of this book reviewed knowledge on the intake of micro- and macronutrients, food choice, and opposing views on whether or not there are mechanisms that control food intake. Appetite and Food Intake: Central Control, Second Edition contains all new chapters and serves as a companion to the first by reviewing current knowledge on neuroendocrine mechanisms that influence food intake and glucose metabolism, including environmental influences on their development, with an emphasis on recent progress in understanding forebrain and hindbrain control of ingestive behavior. In addition, there is a discussion on the benefits derived from novel models for exploring ingestive behavior and the progress that has been achieved due to new technologies. Although major progress is being made in understanding the complex interplay between different control systems, the limits of our knowledge are acknowledged in chapters that review the efficacy of current weight control drugs and the relative importance of fat free mass and body fat in driving food intake.

Appetite and Food Intake

Appetite and Food Intake

Author: Trevor Silverstone

Publisher: Abakon-Verlagsgesellschaft

ISBN: UOM:39015000782444

Category: Appetite

Page: 497

View: 524

Abstract: The workshop goal is to assess current knowledge on eating behavior factors and set the path for future research. Among the many questions that can be asked about appetite are: why we start eating, why we stop eating, and why we eat what we eat. The subjects discussed are the central nervous system and the regulation of feeding, peripheral mechanisms and the regulation of feeding, cultural and psychological aspects of feeding and appetite in man, and feeding and weight disorders in man.

Flavor, Satiety and Food Intake

Flavor, Satiety and Food Intake

Author: Beverly Tepper

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119044895

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 375

This unique book provides a comprehensive review of the latest science on a key aspect of appetite control. It brings together contributions by leading researchers worldwide who approach this complex, multifaceted issue from a variety of differing perspectives, including those of food science, psychology, nutrition, and medicine, among others. It is well known that products that require greater oral processing tend to be more sating. At the same time, the orosensory exposure hypothesis holds that flavor and texture in the mouth are critical in determining meal-size. They may act as key predictors of nutritional benefits and so promote better processing of foods. These two related ideas are at the forefront of current thinking on flavor-satiety interactions. Yet, until Flavor, Satiety and Food Intake no book has offered an integrated treatment of both concepts. The only single-source reference of its kind, it brings health professionals, product developers, and students up to speed on the latest thinking and practices in this fascinating and important area of research. Provides readers with a unique and timely summary of critical recent developments in research on the impact of flavor on satiety Explores a topic of central importance both for food professionals seeking to develop healthier products and health professionals concerned with obesity and over-eating Brings together relevant topics from the fields of food science, psychology, nutrition and medicine Flavor, Satiety and Food Intake provides product developers with valuable information on how to integrate sensory evaluation with product formulation and marketing. It will also serve as a useful resource for health professionals and is a must-read for students of a range of disciplines in which appetite and satiety are studied.

Satiation, Satiety and the Control of Food Intake

Satiation, Satiety and the Control of Food Intake

Author: John E Blundell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780857098719

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 875

With growing concerns about the rising incidence of obesity, there is interest in understanding how the human appetite contributes to energy balance and how it might be affected by the foods we consume, as well as other cultural and environmental factors. Satiation, satiety and the control of food intake provides a concise and authoritative overview of these areas. Part one introduces the concepts of satiation and satiety and discusses how these concepts can be quantified. Chapters in part two focus on biological factors of satiation and satiety before part three moves on to explore food composition factors. Chapters in part four discuss hedonic, cultural and environmental factors of satiation and satiety. Finally, part five explores public health implications and evaluates consumer understanding of satiation and satiety and related health claims. Provides a concise and authoritative overview of appetite regulation Focuses on the effects of biological factors, food composition and hedonic, cultural and environmental factors affecting appetite control Discusses implications for public health

Effect of Plate Size on Appetite and Energy Intake

Effect of Plate Size on Appetite and Energy Intake

Author: Wilson Yip

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:853473473

Category:

Page: 166

View: 852

The study of appetite has generated increasing interest over the past few decades and is believed to play an important role in the obesity epidemic faced worldwide today. Obesity occurs as a result of energy imbalance over time, with energy intake greater than energy expenditure. Energy intake comes from food intake and thus the regulation of food intake and appetite is critical to control of body weight. Decreased portion size as well as eating from a smaller plate is frequently recommended as a strategy to decrease food intake. Very few studies have investigated the effects of plate size on energy intake and those studies have mixed results. Some studies showed that altering plate size did not affect energy intake while other studies showed an association with a change in energy intake when foods were served into different size containers or bowls. Thus, more investigation is required in this field. The aim of this study was to determine whether altering the size of dining plate from which a group of overweight women ate would affect ad libitum (free choice) food intake from a buffet-style lunch meal. The hypothesis was that larger plate size would result in an increase in food intake. This was a two treatment cross-over study where 20 overweight (BMI 29.7±4.5 kg/m2) women attended the University of Auckland Human Nutrition Unit on two occasions. They were unrestrained eaters, able to eat to appetite and not currently dieting. Participants were fasted prior to a breakfast meal, and were randomly assigned to either small (19.5cm) or large (26.5cm) dining plate on to which they served themselves from the lunch meal. Participants were given a light (0.5MJ) breakfast at 9am and were required to stay in the unit with access to no other food until the lunch meal. They were then asked to eat to appetite (ad lib) at an outcome lunch meal at 12 noon. Throughout the day, appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales (VAS). Food items were weighed before and after lunch to calculate energy and macronutrient intake of the ad lib meal. 21 overweight women were registered into the trial and 20 completed the study. There was no detectable difference in VAS-assessed appetite ratings following the breakfast meal on each of the two visits (P>0.05), which confirmed that participants were in a similar state of hunger/fullness prior to the lunch meal, and was as expected following 2 identical breakfast meal. Mean (SEM) energy intake at lunch using the small and large plates was 3975±26.7 and 3901±27.8 kJ respectively. There was no detectable decrease in energy and macronutrient intake when the large plate was replaced by small (paired t-test, P>0.05). In this study, dining plate size did not affect ad lib food intake from a multiple item buffet-style lunch in overweight women. This reinforces with several previous plate size. Despite this, the recommendation to use a smaller plate as a cue for weight control in the overweight should not be ruled out. This study and other previous studies have all focused on participants that are willing to eat freely. If the same study was repeated on a different group of people, such as women who were consciously trying to lose weight and hence actively restricting intake, it is possible that a smaller plate may help in restricting intake. Thus more research is needed to find out whether the use of smaller plates can be used as a way to lower food intake in individuals actively trying to diet, and therefore recommendation for prevention or treatment of obesity. Future studies should address this research question.

Mathematical modeling in energy homeostasis, appetite control and food intake with a special attention to ghrelin

Mathematical modeling in energy homeostasis, appetite control and food intake with a special attention to ghrelin

Author: Jorge Guerra Pires

Publisher: Jorge Guerra Pires

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 820

The elegant ‘interconnected mechanisms’ by which the gastrointestinal (GI) tract regulates food intake are a marvel of biology, but the redundancy (e.g., several hormones seem to have effects in food intake) of both GI (by means of hormones) and central nervous system (CNS, by means of satiety/satiation signals) pathways governing energy homeostasis poses formidable challenges for scientists trying to take a clear glimpse of this machinery, e.g. for designing anti-obesity and alike pharmaceuticals. In essence, notwithstanding the astonishing advancements made over the past few decades in unscrambling many of the molecular pathways involved in energy (homeostasis) regulation, a rather cloudy understanding of “how all the pieces fit together to function as an integrated system” is what can be found for the most part in the scientific community; we discuss that in part II of the work, in a single chapter divided in several sections for numerous imperative hormones, e.g. cholecystokinin. The current work is divided into three parts: part I is regarding fundamentals of physiology and mathematical modeling employed all over the work; part II is more generic and concerns several hormones (what we have called a “web of hormones”) and part III (divided into three chapters) is more specific, concerning a single hormone (i.e., ghrelin). The core of the work is part III, and to a certain extent part II, bearing mind we provide a literature review based on papers scattered/dispersed all over the medical science literature. The main objective of this work is proposing a mathematical model for ghrelin dynamics (Figure 70), a model centered on the gastrointestinal tract (stomach + small intestine, a two-compartment model), with daily-like dynamics, short-term dynamics; and, simultaneously, proposing a prototype for a systems biology like model (igure 40), a model based on numerous hormones, for understanding mathematically food intake/bodyweight control. Ghrelin is a quite powerful orexigenic hormone discovered in the late 1990s that controls appetite and energy homeostasis, alongside leptin and other hormones still to be investigated in depth by the medical sciences literature. Accordingly, we provide a (simple) mathematical model, consisting of a set of ordinary differential equations detailing ghrelin dynamics combined to gastrointestinal signals due to meals. Numerical simulations are able to replicate in silico available data from the literature; additionally, we were able to fit a reduced version of the basal model to experimental data. The model is developed as a module for a bigger potential multi-compartmental structure, detailing food and energy homeostasis within a sort of "a web of hormones" (see part II and the last chapter of part III). The present contribute is to recommend a primary mathematical model for ghrelin dynamics centered in the gastrointestinal tract, with potentiality to be applied also for postabsorptive states, left mainly as future works. We go on with the model by presenting mainly two variations, further unfolding is left as future endeavor: tastants and stochastic version. We test several optimization routines for the parameter estimation procedure, hybrid algorithms (global + local search), for parameter estimation, based on data published for humans (three meals a day). For all the routines, the best is a hybrid composed of simulating annealing as global search and pattern search as local search. In the objective function (sum of the squared errors, SSE), we apply artificial neural networks (a two-layer feedforward neural network) for generating new data from the data already published, a strategy adopted to increase the data set. In the last part of the chapter about ghrelin modeling (part III), we propose several prototypes for future works based on the basal models; the model used for parameter estimation is a “minimal/reduced” model; we also provide discussions and future works for the minimal model and parameter estimation. Key-words. Ghrelin; leptin; mathematical modelling; food intake; appetite; parameter estimation.

Food, Eating and Obesity

Food, Eating and Obesity

Author: David J. Mela

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781489932549

Category: Science

Page: 225

View: 801

Although the exact prevalence of overweight and obesity are dependent upon the definition used, these conditions are generally accepted to be widespread and increasing problems by health authorities and the public in most western nations. The proportion of the UK and US populations which are overweight or obese, by any measure, has substantially risen over the past decade, and similar increases have been observed in other western nations as well as rapidly modernizing societies (Hodge et a/. , 1996). The physiological, psychological, and social! environmental fac tors which may be implicated in the aetiology, maintenance, and treat ment of these conditions have been the subject of an extraordinary volume of human and animal research, scientific conferences, and techni cal and popular literature. This book focuses specifically on the role of food and eating in overeat ing and obesity, emphasizing the relationships between people and food which may give rise to positive energy balance, and the potential contri butions of specific components, foods, or groups of foods. The intent is to integrate the psychobiological and cognitive psychological aspects of appetite, food preferences, and food selection with physiological and metabolic outcomes of eating behaviours. The ingestion of a particular quality and quantity of food is a voluntary behaviour, and that act, its determinants, features and sequelae are explored here, considering wider academic thought but guided by potential practical implications.

Appetite and Body Weight

Appetite and Body Weight

Author: Tim Kirkham

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008046646X

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 376

There is now enough basic work to sketch out the principal systems at all levels of the brain, from prefrontal cortex to lower brainstem, which are orchestrated to provide control of food selection, preference and consumption. At the same time, the complex interplay between central systems and signals generated from peripheral systems include the gut, liver and fat stores, as well as the interactions with the neuroendocrine system can be described in some detail. A continuing theme throughout the book is that the functional analysis of appetite and food intake cannot be limited to a single focus, e.g. hypothalamic neuropeptides and their interactions, but must be based on a fully integrated view of the several contributing systems. Appetite and Body Weight: Integrative Systems and the Development of Anti-Obesity Drugs provides an expert guide to the neural, neurochemical, autonomic and endocrine interrelations which underpin appetite and the controls of food intake and body weight. The book covers many of the neurochemical entities that are currently under investigation, including: neuropeptides, leptin, insulin, monoamines and endogenous cannabinoids in relation to appetite and body-weight control. In addition to the neuroscience analysis, there are also chapters that provide an expert guide to some of the key psychological concepts that the researchers believe are essential in trying to understand the phenomena under investigation. The volume will also serve as an authoritative guide to the current emphasis on the development of novel, efficacious anti-obesity medication. Provides an integrative view of the many systems involved in appetite how they interact to effect food intake (i.e. the brain, endocrine, gut, liver etc.) Considers psychological aspects such as incentive, preference, liking and palatability, and sets these concepts in their behavioural, pharmacological and neural contexts Examines the development of novel anti-obesity drugs, drawing on experience of pharmacological development work, pre-clinical tests for anti-obesity efficacy, and clinical trials of candidate anti-obesity compounds