Special Focus Issue

Special Focus Issue

Author: Charles F. Fulhorst

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:668111673

Category:

Page: 91

View: 854

"Recognition of viruses as a major contributor to vector-borne diseases and other zoonoses dates back many decades. The term arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) is widely recognized even among the lay public. A few rodent-borne viruses recognized long ago (e.g., the arenaviruses associated with Lassa fever and South American hemorrhagic fevers, and the hantaviruses associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe) were discussed under the rubric of arboviruses and even listed in the Arbovirus Catalog. A turning point came 17 years ago with the discovery of the often-fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas. This discovery stimulated interest, funding, and research on rodent hosts of viruses and led to the discovery of dozens of new hantaviruses and arenaviruses; ultimately, the study of roboviruses (rodent-borne viruses) became a discipline in itself. In the last few years, we have learned that a separate order of mammals, the insectivores, are also hosts to likely dozens of hantaviruses whose role in disease is uncertain. The roboviruses have become the rainboviruses (rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses). The discovery of this tremendous diversity of viruses and hosts and the desire to understand their relationships to human disease and to environmental change have spawned new theories, controversies, and terminology: coevolution, cospeciation, spillover, host-jumping, bottom-up trophic cascades, dilution effects, and delayed density-dependence. The development of these concepts and much of the rapid growth in understanding of host-virus-human disease relationships are due to a multidisciplinary approach that combines ecology, epidemiology, virology, and molecular biology. This issue of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases includes a sampling of articles that capture some of the excitement of this new and rapidly growing field of study. The following 10 articles concern viruses belonging to the family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus and family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus. Included are two up-to-date reviews of hantavirus-host ecology in Europe and North America and eight cutting-edge research papers on rodent-borne and insectivore-borne hantaviruses and rodent-borne arenaviruses. Collectively, these articles are indicative of the growing interest of the journal's readership in zoonoses caused by pathogens that are naturally associated with rodents or other small mammals."- p. 549

Bunyaviridae and Their Replication. Part 2. Replication of Bunyaviridae

Bunyaviridae and Their Replication. Part 2. Replication of Bunyaviridae

Author: Connie S. Schmaljohn

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:227754543

Category:

Page: 20

View: 313

The Bunyaviridae family was established in 1975 to encompass a large group of arthropod-borne viruses sharing morphological, morphogenic, and antigenic properties. More than 250 serologically distinct members comprise Bunyaviridae, making it the largest known family of RNA animal viruses. Five genera of Bunyaviridae have been defined: Bunyavirus, Hantavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus, and Uukuvirus. Prototype viruses for each respective genus are Bunyamwera (BUN), Hantaan (HTN), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), sandfly fever Naples (SFN), and Uukuniemi (UUK). Most viruses in the family have been isolated from or are transmitted by arthropods. Hantaviruses are exceptions; these viruses are primarily rodent-borne and have no known arthropod vector but instead are transmitted via aerosolized rodent excreta. Some members of the Bunyaviridae have been associated with severe or fatal human infections; for example, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), HTN, CCHF, and La Crosse (LAC), but many are not known to infect humans. Readers are referred to Chapter 42 for details on the ecology, epidemiology, and medical significance of viruses in this family. Serological cross-reactivity has not been found among viruses in different genera of the Bunyaviridae. Viruses do, however, share several common structural, genetic, replicative, and morphogenic properties, which are discussed in the rest of this report. Keywords: Reprints. (kt).

Manson's Tropical Diseases

Manson's Tropical Diseases

Author: Gordon Charles Cook

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781416044703

Category: Medical

Page: 1830

View: 755

Providing the latest coverage on emerging and re-emerging diseases from around the world, such as tuberculosis and malaria, this updated guide contains boxes and tables that highlight key information on current therapies. This edition includes online access for more information.

Dengue and Zika: Control and Antiviral Treatment Strategies

Dengue and Zika: Control and Antiviral Treatment Strategies

Author: Rolf Hilgenfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811087271

Category: Medical

Page: 375

View: 776

This contributed volume contains 25 chapters from leading international scientists working on dengue and Zika viruses, who came together in Praia do Tofo in Mozambique to discuss the latest developments in the fields of epidemiology, pathogenesis, structural virology, immunology, antiviral drug discovery and development, vaccine efficacy, and mosquito control programs. The meeting venue offered an opportunity to discuss current research on these flaviviruses in an idyllic setting, and also to develop first-hand appreciation of the issues in infectious diseases facing developing countries and of the research gaps in Africa. For readers, who should include basic and clinical researchers in the field and public health professionals, the chapters are organized to provide a comprehensive overview of the various topics in current dengue and Zika virus research. A unique feature of the proceedings of this meeting is the inclusion of the discussions that took place following presentations. These have been transcribed and appended to the end of the relevant chapters, and they form the “salt in the soup” of this book.