The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae

The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae

Author: Sondra Schlesinger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475707854

Category: Medical

Page: 470

View: 206

The publication of this volume of The Viruses entitled The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae comes at an appropriate time. The structure and rep lication strategies of these viruses are now known to be sufficiently di verse to warrant the removal of flaviviruses from the Togaviridae family and establish them as an independent family. Flaviviridae have a special place in the history of virology. The prototype virus-yellow fever virus was the first virus to be identified as the cause of a human disease. Some of the history of this discovery is described in Chapter 1 of this volume; in Chapter 10 the complete sequence of the RNA genome of the virus is presented. This sequence not only defines the primary structure of the viral proteins, it also clarifies the mechanism of translation of the fla vivirus genome. Knowledge of the sequence of the structural proteins of these viruses represents an important step in the potential goal of using purified flavivirus glycoproteins as vaccines. Many of the chapters in this volume focus on the structure and replication of the Togaviridae. These viruses have provided valuable models for studies in cell biology, partic ularly with regard to the cotranslational and posttranslational steps re quired for the synthesis and localization of membrane glycoproteins. Fur thermore, Togaviridae have been pivotal in our growing understanding of how enveloped viruses enter and exit from cells. The broad outlines of the structure and gene expression of Togavir idae and Flaviviridae are known, but important questions remain.

Viral Infections of Humans

Viral Infections of Humans

Author: Alfred S. Evans

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468447279

Category: Medical

Page: 720

View: 477

also occurs. New outbreaks of yellow fever have occurred in Colombia and Trinidad and new outbreaks of rift valley fever have occurred in Egypt. Chapter 6, Arenaviruses: The biochemical and physical properties have now been clar ified, and they show a remarkable uniformity in the various viruses constituting the group. The possibility that prenatal infection with LCM may result in hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis has been raised. Serologic surveys have suggested the existence of Lassa virus infection in Guinea, Central African Empire, Mali, Senegal, Cameroon, and Benin, in addition to earlier identification in Nigeria, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Chapter 7, Coronaviruses: New studies have confirmed the important role of these viruses in common respiratory illnesses of children and adults. The viruses are now known to contain a single positive strand of RNA. About 50% of corona virus infections result in clinical illness. About 5% of common colds are caused by strain DC 43 in winter. Chapter 8, Cytomegalovirus: Sections on pathogenesis of CMV in relation to organ transplantation and mononucleosis, as well as sections on the risk and features of con genital infection and disease, have been expanded. There are encouraging preliminary results with a live CMV vaccine, but the questions of viral persistence and oncogenicity require further evaluation.

Comprehensive Virology

Comprehensive Virology

Author: Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468435634

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 326

The time seems ripe for a critical compendium of that segment of the biological universe we call viruses. Virology, as a science, having passed only recently through its descriptive phase of naming and num bering, has probably reached that stage at which relatively few new-truly new-viruses will be discovered. Triggered by the intellectual probes and techniques of molecular biology, genetics, bio chemical cytology, and high resolution microscopy and spec troscopy, the field has experienced a genuine information explosion. Few serious attempts have been made to chronicle these events. This comprehensive series, which will comprise some 6000 pages in a total of about 18 volumes, represents a commitment by a large group of active investigators to analyze, digest, and expostulate on the great mass of data relating to viruses, much of which is now amorphous and disjointed, and scattered throughout a wide literature. In this way, we hope to place the entire field in perspective, and to develop an invalua ble reference and sourcebook for researchers and students at all levels. This series is designed as a continuum that can be entered anywhere, but which also provides a logical progression of developing facts and integrated concepts.