Choice, Preferences, and Procedures

Choice, Preferences, and Procedures

Author: Kotaro Suzumura

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674727441

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 816

View: 788

Social choice theory critically assesses and rationally designs economic mechanisms for improving human well-being. Kotaro Suzumura—one of the world’s foremost thinkers in social choice theory and welfare economics—fuses abstract ideas with real-world economies to examine foundational issues of normative economics and collective decision making.

Choice, Preferences, and Procedures

Choice, Preferences, and Procedures

Author: Kotaro Suzumura

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674725126

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 806

View: 853

Social choice theory critically assesses and rationally designs economic mechanisms for improving human well-being. Kotaro Suzumura—one of the world’s foremost thinkers in social choice theory and welfare economics—fuses abstract ideas with real-world economies to examine foundational issues of normative economics and collective decision making.

Preferences and Procedures

Preferences and Procedures

Author: Torsten J. Selck

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387275543

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 99

View: 836

Preferences and Procedures presents and tests game-theoretic models of European Union legislative decision-making. It is inspired by the idea of linking statistical testing strategies firmly to formal models of EU policymaking. After describing salient features of the EU legislative process and comparing different models of how the EU negotiates new legislative measures, the models' predictive power is evaluated. On a more general level, Preferences and Procedures answers questions regarding the empirically recognizable effects of institutional arrangements on joint bargaining outcomes.

Fuzzy Decision Procedures with Binary Relations

Fuzzy Decision Procedures with Binary Relations

Author: Leonid Kitainik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401119603

Category: Mathematics

Page: 255

View: 654

In decision theory there are basically two appr~hes to the modeling of individual choice: one is based on an absolute representation of preferences leading to a ntDnerical expression of preference intensity. This is utility theory. Another approach is based on binary relations that encode pairwise preference. While the former has mainly blossomed in the Anglo-Saxon academic world, the latter is mostly advocated in continental Europe, including Russia. The advantage of the utility theory approach is that it integrates uncertainty about the state of nature, that may affect the consequences of decision. Then, the problems of choice and ranking from the knowledge of preferences become trivial once the utility function is known. In the case of the relational approach, the model does not explicitly accounts for uncertainty, hence it looks less sophisticated. On the other hand it is more descriptive than normative in the first stand because it takes the pairwise preference pattern expressed by the decision-maker as it is and tries to make the best out of it. Especially the preference relation is not supposed to have any property. The main problem with the utility theory approach is the gap between what decision-makers are and can express, and what the theory would like them to be and to be capable of expressing. With the relational approach this gap does not exist, but the main difficulty is now to build up convincing choice rules and ranking rules that may help the decision process.

Presidential Primaries and the Dynamics of Public Choice

Presidential Primaries and the Dynamics of Public Choice

Author: Larry M. Bartels

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691221908

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 263

This innovative study blends sophisticated statistical analyses, campaign anecdotes, and penetrating political insight to produce a fascinating exploration of one of America's most controversial political institutions--the process by which our major parties nominate candidates for the presidency. Larry Bartels focuses on the nature and impact of "momentum" in the contemporary nominating system. He describes the complex interconnections among primary election results, expectations, and subsequent primary results that have made it possible for candidates like Jimmy Carter, George Bush, and Gary Hart to emerge from relative obscurity into political prominence in recent nominating campaigns. In the course of his analysis, he addresses questions central to any understanding--or evaluation--of the modern nominating process. How do fundamental political predispositions influence the behavior of primary voters? How quickly does the public learn about new candidates? Under what circumstances will primary success itself generate subsequent primary success? And what are the psychological processes underlying this dynamic tendency? Professor Bartels examines the likely consequences of some proposed alternatives to the current nominating process, including a regional primary system and a one-day national primary. Thus the work will be of interest to political activists, would-be reformers, and interested observers of the American political scene, as well as to students of public opinion, voting behavior, the news media, campaigns, and electoral institutions.

Getting Started

Getting Started

Author:

Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office

ISBN: PURD:32754062780444

Category: Education

Page: 72

View: 108

Outcomes of a series of meetings held in 1990 by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) Roundtable on Public School Choice are summarized in this document's six chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the components (including motivations, vision formation, leadership, the design process, and the types of choice available) involved in creating distinctive schools. Chapter 2 presents strategies for information gathering and outreach efforts. Student assignment policies and procedures are described in the third chapter, with attention to equity concerns. Chapter 4 offers ideas for developing a safe, efficient, and fair transportation system. Strategies for financing choice programs which include keeping plans within funding limits, maintaining equity, and designing funding as an incentive are highlighted in the fifth chapter. Chapter 6 describes specific benefits and new roles associated with school choice. Recommendations are offered in the final section, which concludes that choice offers an opportunity for systemic change. Appendices include information about the OERI Roundtable on Public School Choice, the Roundtable choice programs, OERI publications on choice, selected recent publications on choice, selected sources of information, acknowledgments, and a choice program implementation checklist for communities. (LMI)

Preference, Belief, and Similarity

Preference, Belief, and Similarity

Author: Amos Tversky

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026270093X

Category: Psychology

Page: 1046

View: 745

Amos Tversky (1937–1996), a towering figure in cognitive and mathematical psychology, devoted his professional life to the study of similarity, judgment, and decision making. He had a unique ability to master the technicalities of normative ideals and then to intuit and demonstrate experimentally their systematic violation due to the vagaries and consequences of human information processing. He created new areas of study and helped transform disciplines as varied as economics, law, medicine, political science, philosophy, and statistics. This book collects forty of Tversky's articles, selected by him in collaboration with the editor during the last months of Tversky's life. It is divided into three sections: Similarity, Judgment, and Preferences. The Preferences section is subdivided into Probabilistic Models of Choice, Choice under Risk and Uncertainty, and Contingent Preferences. Included are several articles written with his frequent collaborator, Nobel Prize-winning economist Daniel Kahneman.

Cycles and Social Choice

Cycles and Social Choice

Author: Thomas Schwartz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316853238

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 483

The centuries-old paradox of voting is that majorities sometimes prefer x to y, y to z, and z to x - a cycle. The discovery of the sources and consequences of such cycles, under majority rule and countless other regimes, constitutes much of the mathematical theory of voting and social choice. This book explores the big questions posed by the paradox of voting: positive questions about how to predict outcomes and explain observed stability, and normative questions about how to hold elections, how to take account of preference intensities, the relevance of social welfare to social choice, and challenges to formal 'rationality', individual and social. The overall lesson is that cycles are facts, ubiquitous, and consequential in non-obvious ways, not puzzles to be solved, much less maladies or misfortunes to be avoided or regretted.

Survey Data Collection and Integration

Survey Data Collection and Integration

Author: Cristina Davino

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642213083

Category: Social Science

Page: 156

View: 527

Statistical surveys represent an important source of scientific knowledge and a valid decision support tool in many fields, from social studies to economics, market research, health studies, and others. Scientists have tackled most of the methodological issues concerning surveys and the scientific literature offers excellent proposals for planning and conducting surveys. Nevertheless, surveys often require the achievement of aims that either deviate from the methodology or do not have a specific solution at all. This book focuses on survey theory and applications, providing insight and innovative solutions to face problems in data collection and integration, complex sample design, opinion questionnaire design, and statistical estimation. Formal rigour and simple language, together with real-life examples, will make the book suitable to both practitioners involved in applied research and to academics interested in scientific developments in the survey field.