Coercive Sanctions and International Conflicts

Coercive Sanctions and International Conflicts

Author: Mark Daniel Jaeger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315522395

Category: Political Science

Page: 254

View: 735

Perhaps the most common question raised in the literature on coercive international sanctions is: "Do sanctions work?" Unsurprisingly, the answer to such a sweeping question remains inconclusive. However, even the widely-presumed logic of coercive sanctions – that economic impact translates into effective political pressure – is not the primary driver of conflict developments. Furthermore, existing rationalist-economistic approaches neglect one of the most striking differences seen across sanctions conflicts: the occurrence of positive sanctions or their combination with negative sanctions, implicitly taking them as logically indifferent. Instead of asking whether sanctions work, this book addresses a more basic question: How do coercive international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are relational, socially-constructed facts, the author explores the (de-)escalation of sanctions conflicts from a sociological perspective. Whether sanctions are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation depends on the one hand on the meaning they acquire for opponents as inducing decisions upon mutual conflict. On the other hand, negative sanctions, positive sanctions, or their combination each contribute differently to the way in which opponents perceive conflict, and to its potential transformation. Thus, it is premature to ‘predict’ the political effectiveness of sanctions simply based on economic impact. The book presents analyses of the sanctions conflicts between China and Taiwan and over Iran’s nuclear program, illustrating how negative sanctions, positive sanctions, and their combination made a distinct contribution to conflict development and prospects for cooperation. It will be of great interest to researchers, postgraduates and academics in the fields of international relations, sanctions, international security and international political sociology.

Coercion

Coercion

Author: Kelly M. Greenhill

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190846336

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 858

"A state's power to compel or deter other states to either act or refrain from acting has been a foundational source of world politics since the time of Thucydides. Yet the specific features of deterrence and compellence constantly change in accordance with historical development. In our own lifetimes, for instance, the rising significance of non-state actors and the increasing influence of regional powers have dramatically transformed international politics since the height of the Cold War. Yet much of the existing literature on deterrence and compellence continues to draw, whether implicitly or explicitly, upon assumptions and precepts formulated in a state-centric, bipolar world. Although contemporary coercion frequently features multiple coercers targeting state and non-state adversaries with non-military instruments of persuasion, most literature on coercion still focuses primarily on cases where a single state is trying to coerce another single state via traditional military means. In The Power to Hurt, the leading international relations scholars Kelly M. Greenhill and Peter Krause have gathered together an eminent cast of contributors (e.g., Bob Art, Dan Drezner, Alex Downes, Erik Gartzke, and others) to produce what promises to be a field-shaping work on one of IR's most essential subjects: coercion, whether in the form of compellence, deterrence, or a mix of the two. The volume moves beyond these traditional premises and examines the critical issue of coercion in the 21st century, capturing fresh theoretical and policy relevant developments and drawing upon data and cases from across time and around the globe" --

The Evolution of UN Sanctions

The Evolution of UN Sanctions

Author: Enrico Carisch

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319600055

Category: Social Science

Page: 501

View: 408

Marking the 50th anniversary of UN sanctions, this work examines the evolution of sanctions from a primary instrument of economic warfare to a tool of prevention and protection against global conflicts and human rights abuses. The rise of sanctions as a versatile and frequently used tool to confront the challenges of armed conflicts, terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and violations of international humanitarian and human rights law, is rooted in centuries of trial and error of coercive diplomacy. The authors examine the history of UN sanctions and their potential for confronting emerging and future threats, including: cyberterrorism and information warfare, environmental crimes, and corruption. This work begins with a historical overview of sanctions and the development of the United Nations system. It then explores the consequences of the superpowers' Cold War stalemate, the role of the Non-Aligned Movement, and the subsequent transformation from a blunt, comprehensive approach to smart and fairer sanctions. By calibrating its embargoes, asset freezes and travel bans, the UN developed a set of tools to confront the new category of risk actors: armed non-state actors and militias, global terrorists, arms merchants and conflict minerals, and cyberwarriors. Section II analyzes all thirty UN sanctions regimes adopted over the past fifty years. These narratives explore the contemporaneous political and security context that led to the introduction of specific sanctions measures and enforcement efforts, often spearheaded for good or ill by the permanent five members of the Security Council. Finally, Section III offers a qualitative analysis of the UN sanctions system to identify possible areas for improvements to the current Security Council structure dominated by the five veto-wielding victors of World War II. This work will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in criminal justice, particularly with an interest in security, as well as related fields such as international relations and political science.

International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War

International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309070270

Category: Political Science

Page: 644

View: 806

The end of the Cold War has changed the shape of organized violence in the world and the ways in which governments and others try to set its limits. Even the concept of international conflict is broadening to include ethnic conflicts and other kinds of violence within national borders that may affect international peace and security. What is not yet clear is whether or how these changes alter the way actors on the world scene should deal with conflict: Do the old methods still work? Are there new tools that could work better? How do old and new methods relate to each other? International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War critically examines evidence on the effectiveness of a dozen approaches to managing or resolving conflict in the world to develop insights for conflict resolution practitioners. It considers recent applications of familiar conflict management strategies, such as the use of threats of force, economic sanctions, and negotiation. It presents the first systematic assessments of the usefulness of some less familiar approaches to conflict resolution, including truth commissions, "engineered" electoral systems, autonomy arrangements, and regional organizations. It also opens up analysis of emerging issues, such as the dilemmas facing humanitarian organizations in complex emergencies. This book offers numerous practical insights and raises key questions for research on conflict resolution in a transforming world system.

Peacemaking in International Conflict

Peacemaking in International Conflict

Author: I. William Zartman

Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press

ISBN: 192922365X

Category: Political Science

Page: 505

View: 417

This updated and expanded edition of the highly popular volume originally published in 1997 describes the tools and skills of peacemaking that are currently available and critically assesses their usefulness and limitations.

Handbook of Defense Economics

Handbook of Defense Economics

Author: Keith Hartley

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444519108

Category: History

Page: 698

View: 478

The second volume of the Handbook of Defense Economics addresses defense needs, practices, threats, and policies in the modern era of globalization. This new era concerns the enhanced cross-border flows of all kinds (e.g., capital and labor flows, revolutionary rhetoric, guerrillas, and terrorists) including the spillovers of benefits and costs associated with public goods and transnational externalities (i.e., uncompensated interdependencies affecting two or more nations). These ever-increasing flows mean that military armaments and armies are less able to keep out security threats. Thus, novel defense and security barriers are needed to protect borders that are porous to terrorists, pollutants, political upheavals, and conflicts. Even increased trade and financial flows imply novel security challenges and defenses. Globalization also underscores the importance of a new set of institutions (e.g., the European Union and global governance networks) and agents (e.g., nongovernmental organizations and partnerships). This volume addresses the security challenges in this age of globalization, where conflicts involve novel tactics, new technologies, asymmetric warfare, different venues, and frightening weapons. Volume 2 contains topics not covered in volume 1 – i.e., civil wars, peacekeeping, economic sanctions, the econometrics of arms races, conversion, peace economics, and the interface of trade, peace, and democracy. Volume 2 also revisits topics from volume 1, where there has been a significant advancement of knowledge – i.e., conflict analysis, terrorism, arms races, arms trade, military manpower, and arms industries. All of the main securities concerns of today are analyzed. Chapters are written by the leading contributors in the topic areas. *Up-to-date surveys on the pressing defense issues: theoretical, empirical and policy issues. *Coverage of theoretical and empirical studies of terrorism. *Contributions by the leading researchers in the field of defense economics.

The Ukraine Conflict

The Ukraine Conflict

Author: Derek Averre

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351692878

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 481

It is not hyperbole to suggest that the foundations of post-cold war security in Europe have been badly damaged by the conflict in Ukraine since 2014. Russia’s annexation of Crimea and intervention in eastern Ukraine appear to have created a ‘simmering’ conflict, which may take years to resolve and have profound consequences for the European security environment. This volume explores the various political, economic and social aspects of these profound changes and their wider significance for Europe, bringing together contributions by scholars from across the continent and in various disciplinary fields to offer an authoritative, in-depth examination of the complex causes of the Ukraine crisis and the consequences for Ukrainian statehood, Ukraine’s relations with Russia, Russia’s own domestic governance and Russia’s relations with Europe. This book was originally published as a special issue of Europe-Asia Studies.

Trump and Iran

Trump and Iran

Author: Nader Entessar

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781498588874

Category:

Page: 288

View: 180

With the advent of the Trump Administration, relations between Iran and the United States have become increasingly conflictual to the point that a future war between the two countries is a realistic possibility. President Trump has unilaterally withdrawn the US from the historic Iran nuclear accord and has re-imposed the nuclear-related sanctions, which had been removed as a result of that accord. Reflecting a new determined US effort to curb Iran's hegemonic behavior throughout the Middle East, Trump's Iran policy has all the markings of a sharp discontinuity in the Iran containment strategy of the previous six US administrations. The regime change policy, spearheaded by a hawkish cabinet with a long history of antipathy toward the Iranian government, has become the most salient feature of US policy toward Iran under President Trump. This turn in US foreign policy has important consequences not just for Iran but also for Iran's neighbors and prospects of long-term stability in the Persian Gulf and beyond. This book seeks to examine the fluid dynamic of US-Iran relations in the Trump era by providing a social scientific understanding of the pattern of hostility and antagonism between Washington and Tehran and the resulting spiraling conflict that may lead to a disastrous war in the region.

Imposing Sanctions on Violent Non-State Actors to Restore International Peace and Security

Imposing Sanctions on Violent Non-State Actors to Restore International Peace and Security

Author: Christopher Huber

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783658377441

Category: Political Science

Page: 175

View: 701

In the last decades, violent non-state actors (VNSAs) such as rebel and terrorist organizations have proved their capacity to break international law. The international community, particularly the United Nations (UN), has reacted to this development by redirecting its conflict resolution efforts to these non-state entities. This has turned targeted sanctions into one of the most vital and indispensable foreign policy tools available to the UN Security Council in combating terrorism and contributing to the peaceful resolution of (intra-state) conflicts. Despite the UN Security Council’s growing tendency to sanction VNSAs, there has been little research analyzing the effects of UN targeted sanctions on these non-government actors. This book seeks to fill this gap and shifts the focus on non-state actors by ascertaining the general mechanisms through and conditions under which UN targeted sanctions imposed on VNSAs tend to be effective. The tripartite empirical analysis combining quantitative and qualitative research methods demonstrates that the state-centric understanding of how sanctions work is not simply applicable to the effective sanctioning of violent non-state actors such as rebel and terrorist movements.

International Conflict and Security Law

International Conflict and Security Law

Author: Richard Burchill

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139446134

Category: Law

Page:

View: 476

Hilaire McCoubrey wrote extensively in the area of armed conflict law, and on the issues of collective security law and the law relating to arms control. Although he died at the early age of 46 in 2000 he had contributed significantly to the separate study of these areas, but also to the idea of studying the issues as a whole subject. The collection covers difficult and controversial issues in the area of conflict and security law. The contributors, drawn both from academe and practice, provide expert analysis of many aspects of the law governing armed conflict and collective security. As well as providing a fitting tribute to the main aspects of Hilaire's contribution to knowledge, the volume provides a coherent reconsideration and development of key aspects of conflict and security law at a time when that law is being applied, breached, debated or reformed on almost a daily basis.

The Structure of International Conflict

The Structure of International Conflict

Author: C. R. Mitchell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781349198214

Category: Political Science

Page: 355

View: 578

What constitutes a `conflict' between human groups, organisations or countries? How do people perceive and behave in conflicts? How do conflicts come to an end and what part can outsiders play in settling them or making them less damaging? The present work seeks to answer such questions by examining common structures and processes found in human conflicts in many settings, and by demonstrating how such common features reveal themselves in conflicts as ostensibly different as international war and interpersonal disagreements in organisations. The Structure of International Conflict seeks to be a some permanent use to all students interested in penetrating beneath the surface details and ostensible dissimilarities of specific wars, disputes and quarrels to the basic structure that underlies all human conflicts, from the most peaceful to the most violent, lethal and destructive.