Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines

Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines

Author: J.H. Fetzer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401009737

Category: Computers

Page: 352

View: 867

An important collection of studies providing a fresh and original perspective on the nature of mind, including thoughtful and detailed arguments that explain why the prevailing paradigm - the computational conception of language and mentality - can no longer be sustained. An alternative approach is advanced, inspired by the work of Charles S. Peirce, according to which minds are sign-using (or `semiotic') systems, which in turn generates distinctions between different kinds of minds and overcomes problems that burden more familiar alternatives. Unlike conceptions of minds as machines, this novel approach has obvious evolutionary implications, where differences in semiotic abilities tend to distinguish the species. From this point of view, the scope and limits of computer and AI systems can be more adequately appraised and alternative accounts of consciousness and cognition can be more thoroughly criticised. Readership: Intermediate and advanced students of computer science, AI, cognitive science, and all students of the philosophy of the mind.

Superminds

Superminds

Author: Selmer Bringsjord

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401002837

Category: Philosophy

Page: 339

View: 764

This is the first book-length presentation and defense of a new theory of human and machine cognition, according to which human persons are superminds. Superminds are capable of processing information not only at and below the level of Turing machines (standard computers), but above that level (the "Turing Limit"), as information processing devices that have not yet been (and perhaps can never be) built, but have been mathematically specified; these devices are known as super-Turing machines or hypercomputers. Superminds, as explained herein, also have properties no machine, whether above or below the Turing Limit, can have. The present book is the third and pivotal volume in Bringsjord's supermind quartet; the first two books were What Robots Can and Can't Be (Kluwer) and AI and Literary Creativity (Lawrence Erlbaum). The final chapter of this book offers eight prescriptions for the concrete practice of AI and cognitive science in light of the fact that we are superminds.

Artificial Cognition Systems

Artificial Cognition Systems

Author: Loula, Angelo

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781599041131

Category: Computers

Page: 418

View: 626

"This book presents recent research efforts in Artificial Intelligence about building artificial systems capable of performing cognitive tasks. A fundamental issue addressed in this book is if these cognitive processes can have any meaningfulness to the artificial system being built"--Provided by publisher.

Machine Ethics

Machine Ethics

Author: Michael Anderson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139497749

Category: Computers

Page:

View: 950

The new field of machine ethics is concerned with giving machines ethical principles, or a procedure for discovering a way to resolve the ethical dilemmas they might encounter, enabling them to function in an ethically responsible manner through their own ethical decision making. Developing ethics for machines, in contrast to developing ethics for human beings who use machines, is by its nature an interdisciplinary endeavor. The essays in this volume represent the first steps by philosophers and artificial intelligence researchers toward explaining why it is necessary to add an ethical dimension to machines that function autonomously, what is required in order to add this dimension, philosophical and practical challenges to the machine ethics project, various approaches that could be considered in attempting to add an ethical dimension to machines, work that has been done to date in implementing these approaches, and visions of the future of machine ethics research.

Empirical Research on Semiotics and Visual Rhetoric

Empirical Research on Semiotics and Visual Rhetoric

Author: Danesi, Marcel

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781522556237

Category: Computers

Page: 312

View: 297

The study of symbols has long been considered a necessary field to unravel concealed meanings in symbols and images. These methods have since established themselves as staples in various fields of psychology, anthropology, computer science, and cognitive science. Empirical Research on Semiotics and Visual Rhetoric is a critical academic publication that examines communication through images and symbols and the methods by which researchers and scientists analyze these images and symbols. Featuring coverage on a wide range of topics, such as material culture, congruity theory, and social media, this publication is geared toward academicians, researchers, and students seeking current research on images, symbols, and how to analyze them.

Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence

Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence

Author: Vincent C. Müller

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319264851

Category: Philosophy

Page: 572

View: 910

This volume offers a look at the fundamental issues of present and future AI, especially from cognitive science, computer science, neuroscience and philosophy. This work examines the conditions for artificial intelligence, how these relate to the conditions for intelligence in humans and other natural agents, as well as ethical and societal problems that artificial intelligence raises or will raise. The key issues this volume investigates include the relation of AI and cognitive science, ethics of AI and robotics, brain emulation and simulation, hybrid systems and cyborgs, intelligence and intelligence testing, interactive systems, multi-agent systems, and super intelligence. Based on the 2nd conference on “Theory and Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence” held in Oxford, the volume includes prominent researchers within the field from around the world.

The Ethics of Information Technologies

The Ethics of Information Technologies

Author: Keith W Miller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000152005

Category: Law

Page: 490

View: 451

This volume collects key influential papers that have animated the debate about information computer ethics over the past three decades, covering issues such as privacy, online trust, anonymity, values sensitive design, machine ethics, professional conduct and moral responsibility of software developers. These previously published articles have set the tone of the discussion and bringing them together here in one volume provides lecturers and students with a one-stop resource with which to navigate the debate.

Evolution and the New Gnosis

Evolution and the New Gnosis

Author: Don Cruse

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 9780595224456

Category: Philosophy

Page: 368

View: 278

Exposing a long-hidden logical conflict that has hindered the quest for a deeper understanding in science, religion and philosophy. The unique ideas in this book shatter what are often unconscious or deeply hidden but nevertheless widely held assumptions. Whatever your world view or discipline, examine it anew through the window of these 22 hard-hitting essays with titles such as: Evolution as a Property of Mind, Christianity and the Old Gnosis, Isaac Newton & Harry Potter, What is Imagination? - combined with critical insights and commentaries on the works of Charles Darwin, Noam Chomsky, Michael Polanyi, Arthur Koestler, Theodore Roszak, Owen Barfield, Rudolf Steiner and many others. Also, investigate the social future as viewed in the light of an ongoing evolution of human consciousness.

Systemics of Emergence

Systemics of Emergence

Author: Gianfranco Minati

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387288987

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 746

View: 454

Systemics of Emergence: Research and Development is a volume devoted to exploring the core theoretical and disciplinary research problems of emergence processes from which systems are established. It focuses on emergence as the key point of any systemic process. This topic is dealt with within different disciplinary approaches, indicated by the organization in sections: 1) Applications; 2) Biology and human care; 3) Cognitive Science; 4) Emergence; 5) General Systems; 6) Learning; 7) Management; 8) Social Systems; 9) Systemic Approach and Information Science; 10) Theoretical issues in Systemics. The Editors and contributing authors have produced this volume to help, encourage and widen the work in this area of General Systems Research.

Conceptual Challenges in Evolutionary Psychology

Conceptual Challenges in Evolutionary Psychology

Author: Harmon R. Holcomb III

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401006187

Category: Science

Page: 401

View: 110

This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data-processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychology through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and to computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental, and methodological studies will also appear from time to time. Few areas of inquiry have generated as much interest and enthusiasm in recent times as has the discipline known as "evolutionary psychology", but its pretentions and its accomlishments have not always been properly understood. This collection brings together important work in psychology, anthropology, and the philosophy of science that contributes toward that goal, especially by emphasizing the role of natural selection and sexual selection as crucial factors in the evolution of cognitive mechanisms for information processing. The methodological studies that are presented here are bound to enhance appreciation for the scope and limits of this fascinating domain. The editor has produced a fascinating volume that should appeal to a broad and diverse audience.

Prerational Intelligence

Prerational Intelligence

Author: Holk Cruse

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0792366654

Category: Artificial intelligence

Page: 578

View: 964

The focus of prerational intelligence is on the way animals and artificial systems utilize information about their surroundings in order to behave intelligently; the premise is that logic and symbolic reasoning are neither necessary nor, possibly, sufficient. Experts in the fields of biology, psychology, robotics, AI, mathematics, engineering, computer science, and philosophy review the evidence that intelligent behaviour can arise in systems of simple agents interacting according to simple rules; that self-organization and interaction with the environment are critical; and that quick approximations may replace logical analyses. It is argued that a better understanding of the intelligence inherent in procedure like those illustrated will eventually shed light on how rational intelligence is realised in humans. Readership: Scientifically literate general readers and scientists in all fields interested in understanding and duplicating biological intelligence.

Render Unto Darwin

Render Unto Darwin

Author: James H. Fetzer

Publisher: Open Court

ISBN: 9780812698794

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 281

With exceptionally clear analysis, James Fetzer dissects the philosophical issues underlying today’s most contentious moral debates. He examines unflinchingly the controversies where science, religion, and politics meet — intelligent design, creationism, evolution, abortion, stem-cell research, and human cloning — and offers a concept of morality based on respect of individual rights, not religion.