Eutrophication Processes in Coastal Systems

Eutrophication Processes in Coastal Systems

Author: Robert J. Livingston

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849390621

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 109

Derived from an unprecedented research effort covering over 31 years in a series of studies of 7 major river-estuaries, Eutrophication Processes in Coastal Systems presents a comprehensive and current review of the nature of the eutrophication process and how short- and long-term nutrient loading affects marine systems. This unique book is the culmination of the most advanced research to date on how coastal systems work. Based on an 11 year interdisciplinary study of the Perdido Bay System, Dr. Robert J. Livingston's groundbreaking work offers evidence for significant findings such as: Nutrient concentration gradients in fresh water as it entered the bay were stimulatory to phytoplankton blooms Species that showed distinctive seasonal and interannual successions dominated plankton blooms High relative dominance of bloom species was associated with significant reduction of phytoplankton species richness and diversity The blooms were associated with major reductions of infaunal and epibenthic macroinvertibrates, forcing a serious disruption of the food webs and losses of secondary production Eutrophication Processes in Coastal Ecosystems goes beyond its innovative analyses of how estuarine and coastal systems have responded to fundamental alterations of the eutrophication process. Dr. Livingston's book presents the case that bloom impacts must be reviewed against the background conditions that include periodic changes brought on by drought and anthropogenous dredging. It points to the critical need for further study of phytoplankton communities and the connection between plankton blooms, sediment deterioration, and low secondary production.

Trophic Organization in Coastal Systems

Trophic Organization in Coastal Systems

Author: Robert J. Livingston

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420040852

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 471

Derived from an unprecedented research effort covering over 70 field years of field data in a series of studies, Trophic Organization in Coastal Systems represents an alternative approach to coastal research that has been successfully applied to coastal resource management issues. This unique book is based upon a sequence of long-term, interdiscipl

Clean Coastal Waters

Clean Coastal Waters

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309069489

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 705

Environmental problems in coastal ecosystems can sometimes be attributed to excess nutrients flowing from upstream watersheds into estuarine settings. This nutrient over-enrichment can result in toxic algal blooms, shellfish poisoning, coral reef destruction, and other harmful outcomes. All U.S. coasts show signs of nutrient over-enrichment, and scientists predict worsening problems in the years ahead. Clean Coastal Waters explains technical aspects of nutrient over-enrichment and proposes both immediate local action by coastal managers and a longer-term national strategy incorporating policy design, classification of affected sites, law and regulation, coordination, and communication. Highlighting the Gulf of Mexico's "Dead Zone," the Pfiesteria outbreak in a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, and other cases, the book explains how nutrients work in the environment, why nitrogen is important, how enrichment turns into over-enrichment, and why some environments are especially susceptible. Economic as well as ecological impacts are examined. In addressing abatement strategies, the committee discusses the importance of monitoring sites, developing useful models of over-enrichment, and setting water quality goals. The book also reviews voluntary programs, mandatory controls, tax incentives, and other policy options for reducing the flow of nutrients from agricultural operations and other sources.

Oceans and Human Health

Oceans and Human Health

Author: Robert E. Bowen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118828441

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 145

Human health and well-being are tied to the vitality of the globalocean and coastal systems on which so many live and rely. Weengage with these extraordinary environments to enhance both ourhealth and our well-being. But, we need to recognize thatintroducing contaminants and otherwise altering these ocean systemscan harm human health and well-being in significant and substantialways. These are complex, challenging, and critically importantthemes. How the human relationship to the oceans evolves incoming decades may be one of the most important connections inunderstanding our personal and social well-being. Yet, ourunderstanding of this relationship is far too limited. This remarkable volume brings experts from diverse disciplinesand builds a workable understanding of breadth anddepth of the processes – both social and environmental– that will help us to limit future costs and enhance thebenefits of sustainable marine systems. In particular, theauthors have developed a shared view that the global coastalenvironment is under threat through intensified natural resourceutilization, as well as changes to global climate and otherenvironmental systems. All these changes contributeindividually, but more importantly cumulatively, to higher risksfor public health and to the global burden of disease. This pioneering book will be of value to advanced undergraduateand postgraduate students taking courses in public health,environmental, economic, and policy fields. Additionally, thetreatment of these complex systems is of essential value to thepolicy community responsible for these questions and to the broaderaudience for whom these issues are more directly connected to theirown health and well-being. "The seas across this planet and their effects on human societyand its destiny are a fascinating subject for analysis and insightsderived from intellectual inquiry. This diverse and complex subjectnecessarily requires a blending of knowledge from differentdisciplines, which the authors of this volume have achieved withremarkable success." "The following pages in this volume are written in a lucid andvery readable style, and provide a wealth of knowledge andinsightful analysis, which is a rare amalgam of multi-disciplinaryperspectives and unique lines of intellectual inquiry. It isvaluable to get a volume such as this, which appeals as much to anon-specialist reader as it does to those who are specialists inthe diverse but interconnected subjects covered in thisvolume." (From the "Foreword" written by, R K Pachauri, Director General,TERI and Chairman, IPCC)

Coastal Systems

Coastal Systems

Author: Simon Haslett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134069347

Category: Nature

Page: 241

View: 158

The coast represents the crossroads between the oceans, land and atmosphere, and all three contribute to the physical and ecological evolution of coastlines. Coasts are dynamic systems, with identifiable inputs and outputs of energy and material. Changes to input force coasts to respond, often in dramatic ways as attested by the impacts of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, the landfall of Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast of the USA in 2005, and the steady rise of global warming driven sea-level. More than half the world’s human population lives at the coast, and here people often come into conflict with natural coastal processes. Research continues to unravel the relationship between coastal processes and society, so that we may better appreciate, understand, manage and live safely within this unique global environment. Coastal Systems offers a concise introduction to the processes, landforms, ecosystems and management of this important global environment. New to the second edition is a greater emphasis on the role of high-energy events, such as storms and tsunamis, which have manifested themselves with catastrophic effects in recent years. There is also a new concluding chapter, and updated guides to the ever-growing coastal literature. Each chapter is illustrated and furnished with topical case studies from around the world. Introductory chapters establish the importance of coasts, and explain how they are studied within a systems framework. Subsequent chapters explore the role of waves, tides, rivers and sea-level change in coastal evolution. Students will benefit from summary points, themed boxes, engaging discussion questions and new graded annotated guides to further reading at the end of each chapter. Additionally, a comprehensive glossary of technical terms and an extensive bibliography are provided. The book is highly illustrated with diagrams and original plates. The comprehensive balance of illustrations and academic thought provides a well balanced view between the role of coastal catastrophes and gradual processes, also examining the impact humans and society have and continue to have on the coastal environment.

Tools and Criteria for Sustainable Coastal Ecosystem Management

Tools and Criteria for Sustainable Coastal Ecosystem Management

Author: Lars Håkanson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 354078361X

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 992

The aim of this book is to discuss practically useful (operational) bioindicators for sustainable coastal management, criteria for coastal area sensitivity to eutrophication and an approach set a "biological value" of coastal areas. These bioindicators should meet defined criteria for practical usefulness, e.g., they should be simple to understand and apply to managers and scientists with different educational backgrounds. Central aspects for this book concern effect-load-sensitivity analyses. One and the same nutrient loading may cause different effects in coastal areas of different sensitivity. Remedial measures should be carried out in a cost-effective manner and this book discusses methods and criteria for this. Remedial strategies should generally focus on phosphorus rather than nitrogen because the effects of nitrogen reductions can rarely be predicted well and nitrogen reductions may favour the bloom of harmful cyanobacteria. Three case-studies exemplify the practical use of the bioindicators and concepts discussed in the book. The first concerns how local emissions of nutrients affect the receiving waters when all important nutrient fluxes are accounted for. The second concerns how to find reference values for "good" ecological status to set targets for remedial actions. The third gives a reconstruction of eutrophication. If the development during the last 100 years can be understood, key prerequisites to turn the development would be at hand. This book should attract considerable interest from researchers in marine ecology, consultants and administrators interested in management and studies of coastal systems.

The Global Coastal Ocean

The Global Coastal Ocean

Author: Allan R. Robinson

Publisher:

ISBN: 0674015266

Category: Education

Page: 1070

View: 576

In multidisciplinary efforts to understand and manage our planet, contemporary ocean science plays an essential role. Volumes 13 and 14 of The Sea focus on two of the most important components in the field of ocean science today—the coastal ocean and its interactions with the deep sea, and coupled physical-biogeochemical and ecosystem dynamics.