Best Explanations

Best Explanations

Author: Kevin McCain

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191063909

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 869

Explanatory reasoning is ubiquitous. Not only are rigorous inferences to the best explanation used pervasively in the sciences, this kind of reasoning is common in everyday life. Despite its widespread use, inference to the best explanation is still in need of precise formulation, and it remains controversial. On the one hand, supporters of explanationism take inference to the best explanation to be a justifying form of inference; some even take all justification to be a matter of explanatory reasoning. On the other hand, critics object that inference to the best explanation is not a fundamental form of inference, and some argue that we should be skeptical of inference to the best explanation in general. This volume brings together twenty philosophers to explore various aspects of inference to the best explanation and the debates surrounding it. These specially commissioned essays constitute the cutting edge of research on the role explanatory considerations play in epistemology and philosophy of science.

Growing Explanations

Growing Explanations

Author: M. Norton Wise

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822390084

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 108

For much of the twentieth century scientists sought to explain objects and processes by reducing them to their components—nuclei into protons and neutrons, proteins into amino acids, and so on—but over the past forty years there has been a marked turn toward explaining phenomena by building them up rather than breaking them down. This collection reflects on the history and significance of this turn toward “growing explanations” from the bottom up. The essays show how this strategy—based on a widespread appreciation for complexity even in apparently simple processes and on the capacity of computers to simulate such complexity—has played out in a broad array of sciences. They describe how scientists are reordering knowledge to emphasize growth, change, and contingency and, in so doing, are revealing even phenomena long considered elementary—like particles and genes—as emergent properties of dynamic processes. Written by leading historians and philosophers of science, these essays examine the range of subjects, people, and goals involved in changing the character of scientific analysis over the last several decades. They highlight the alternatives that fields as diverse as string theory, fuzzy logic, artificial life, and immunology bring to the forms of explanation that have traditionally defined scientific modernity. A number of the essays deal with the mathematical and physical sciences, addressing concerns with hybridity and the materials of the everyday world. Other essays focus on the life sciences, where questions such as “What is life?” and “What is an organism?” are undergoing radical re-evaluation. Together these essays mark the contours of an ongoing revolution in scientific explanation. Contributors. David Aubin, Amy Dahan Dalmedico, Richard Doyle, Claus Emmeche, Peter Galison, Stefan Helmreich, Ann Johnson, Evelyn Fox Keller, Ilana Löwy, Claude Rosental, Alfred Tauber

Epistemic Explanations

Epistemic Explanations

Author: Ernest Sosa

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192598455

Category: Philosophy

Page: 252

View: 238

Epistemic Explanations develops an improved virtue epistemology and uses it to explain several epistemic phenomena. Part I lays out a telic virtue epistemology that accommodates varieties of knowledge and understanding particularly pertinent to the humanities. Part II develops an epistemology of suspension of judgment, by relating it to degrees of confidence and to inquiry. Part III develops a substantially improved telic virtue epistemology by appeal to default assumptions important in domains of human performance generally, and in our intellectual lives as a special case. This reconfigures earlier virtue epistemology, which now seems a first approximation. This part also introduces a metaphysical hierarchy of epistemic categories and defends in particular a category of secure knowledge.

Examples & Explanations for California Community Property

Examples & Explanations for California Community Property

Author: Charlotte K. Goldberg

Publisher: Aspen Publishing

ISBN: 9781454876038

Category: Law

Page: 358

View: 548

A favorite among successful students, and often recommended by professors, the unique Examples & Explanations series gives you extremely clear introductions to concepts followed by realistic examples that mirror those presented in the classroom throughout the semester. Use at the beginning and midway through the semester to deepen your understanding through clear explanations, corresponding hypothetical fact patterns, and analysis. Then use to study for finals by reviewing the hypotheticals as well as the structure and reasoning behind the accompanying analysis. Designed to complement your casebook, the trusted Examples & Explanations titles get right to the point in a conversational, often humorous style that helps you learn the material each step of the way and prepare for the exam at the end of the course. The unique, time-tested Examples & Explanations series is invaluable to teach yourself the subject from the first day of class until your last review before the final. Each guide: helps you learn new material by working through chapters that explain each topic in simple language challenges your understanding with hypotheticals similar to those presented in class provides valuable opportunity to study for the final by reviewing the hypotheticals as well as the structure and reasoning behind the corresponding analysis quickly gets to the point in conversational style laced with humor remains a favorite among law school students is often recommended by professors who encourage the use of study guides works with ALL the major casebooks, suits any class on a given topic provides an alternative perspective to help you understand your casebook and in-class lectures

Examples & Explanations for Criminal Law

Examples & Explanations for Criminal Law

Author: Richard G. Singer

Publisher: Aspen Publishing

ISBN: 9781543839364

Category: Law

Page: 714

View: 461

Employing the unique, time-tested Examples & Explanations pedagogy, Examples & Explanations for Criminal Law combines textual material with well-written and comprehensive examples, explanations, and questions to test students’ comprehension of the materials and to provide practice in applying information to fact patterns. The questions, which often raise a variety of issues in one fact situation, are similar to those on a law school or bar examination. New to the Eighth Edition: Discussion of self-defense and police use of force issues Impact of #MeToo movement on rape law Interesting hypothetical situations based on real cases in the last few years Professors and students will benefit from: Updated materials—utilizes well-known cases that have not made the appellate courts or even gone to litigation to make the material current and easily applicable Explanations include analysis of both prosecution and defense—this pedagogical approach provides valuable exam-writing skills for students Readable and accessible—often incorporates popular culture and humor to spark interest in students Highly recommended—by Atticus Falcon, author of Planet Law School, an orientation guide for students about to begin law school Straightforward presentation—clear, introductory text enables students to understand and apply principles Visual aids—tables and charts demonstrate legal standards and concepts

Beyond Mainstream Explanations of the Financial Crisis

Beyond Mainstream Explanations of the Financial Crisis

Author: Ismael Hossein-zadeh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136190001

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 172

View: 865

This book provides a critique of the neoclassical explanations of the 2008 financial collapse, of the ensuing long recession and of the neoliberal austerity responses to it. The study argues that while the prevailing views of deregulation and financialization as instrumental culprits in the explosion and implosion of the financial bubble are not false, they fail to point out that financialization is essentially an indication of an advanced stage of capitalist development. These standard explanations tend to ignore the systemic dynamics of the accumulation of finance capital, the inherent limits to that accumulation, production and division of economic surplus, class relations, and the balance of social forces that mold economic policy. Instead of simply blaming the ‘irrational behavior’ of market players, as neoliberals do, or lax public supervision, as Keynesians do, this book focuses on the core dynamics of capitalist development that not only created the financial bubble, but also fostered the ‘irrational behavior’ of market players and subverted public policy. Due to its interdisciplinary perspective, this book will be of interest to students and researchers in economics, finance, politics and sociology.

Examples & Explanations for Constitutional Law

Examples & Explanations for Constitutional Law

Author: Christopher N. May

Publisher: Aspen Publishing

ISBN: 9781543805949

Category: Law

Page: 496

View: 466

Examples & Explanations: Constitutional Law: National Power and Federalism features straightforward, informal text that is never simplistic. Its unique, time-tested Examples & Explanations pedagogy combines textual material with well-written and comprehensive examples, explanations, and questions. A problem-oriented guide, it takes students through the principal doctrines of constitutional law covered in a typical course. The unique, time-tested Examples & Explanations series is invaluable for students learning the subject from the first day of class until the last review before the final exam. Each guide: Presents relevant case law in a conversational style laced with humor Provides hypotheticals similar to those presented in class Helps students learn new material by working through chapters that explain each topic in simple language Provides valuable opportunity to study for the final exam by reviewing the hypotheticals as well as the structure and reasoning behind the corresponding analysis Works with all the major casebooks and suits any class on a given topic Remains a favorite among law school students and is often recommended by professors New to the Eighth Edition: Updated examples and explanations Roughly 25 important new decisions from the Supreme Court’s 2016, 2017, and 2018 terms such as Trump v. Hawaii; South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc.; Sessions v. Morales-Santana; Minnesota Voters Alliance v. Mansky; Murphy v. NCAA; Patchak v. Zinke; Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia, Inc. v. Comer

Pure and Simple: Anesthesia Writtens Review IV Questions, Answers, Explanations 501-1000

Pure and Simple: Anesthesia Writtens Review IV Questions, Answers, Explanations 501-1000

Author: Christopher J Gallagher, MD

Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc

ISBN: 9781483431178

Category: Science

Page:

View: 527

Pure and simple, to get ready for the boards, do tons of questions. There are plenty of good reviews and question banks out there. By all means, use them! Then, to make absolutely sure you pass, do THESE questions as well. This the fourth volume in the Pure and Simple series has the answers and explanations to the second batch of 500 questions. Pure and simple, the more questions you do, the more likely you are to pass. Dr Gallagher has been helping people review for the Anesthesiology boards since the 80’s. Author of the Board Stiff series, he is now writing for the written board audience.