Institutional limits to land governance reform

Institutional limits to land governance reform

Author: Resnick, Danielle

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 18

View: 442

Over the last decade, land governance has become a major priority for the development community.1 A particular focus has been on sub-Saharan Africa due to the recognized paradox of high levels of land availability and low productivity in the region (see Deininger et al. 2012). While poor land governance systems have long been identified as a key reason for this disjuncture, the relatively recent large-scale impetus to improve land governance emerged from the inclusion of land management in 2009 as one of the four pillars under the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Develop-ment Program (CAADP). Subsequently, in the wake of the G-8’s launch of the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutri-tion in 2012, many international initiatives have emerged to promote better land governance. These include the African Union’s Land Policy Initiative (AULPI) and the World Bank’s Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF). At the national level in Africa, land registration and land titling are the most common approaches to reform (Sikor and Müller 2009), with governments selecting among a broad spectrum of modalities to pilot. These include rural land use plans in some francophone countries (e.g., Benin, Burkina Faso, and Côte d’Ivoire), systematic land tenure regularization (Ethio-pia, Madagascar, Rwanda), and communal land demarcation and registration (e.g., Ghana, Mozambique, Tanzania) (see Byamugisha 2013).

Enabling environments for nutrition advocacy: A comparison of infant and young child feeding and food fortification in Nigeria

Enabling environments for nutrition advocacy: A comparison of infant and young child feeding and food fortification in Nigeria

Author: Resnick, Danielle

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page:

View: 136

The importance of an enabling environment for effective nutrition advocacy is well-recognized, and several key elements of such an environment have been well-established in existing research. However, nutrition policies are multi-faceted, and advocates may target different elements of the policy process, from agenda setting to design to implementation. As a result, enabling environments are neither uniform nor static. Drawing on 66 interviews with a diverse group of stakeholders in Nigeria at the federal and subnational level, we examine some of the factors that have facilitated or hindered the ability of advocates to influence policy implementation in the domains of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and large-scale food fortification. In doing so, we show the importance of considering the politics, institutions, and resources specific to discrete policy categories as well as the characteristics of the broader policy system in which advocates are operating. By working across these two levels, advocates can both be reactive to the prevailing enabling environment as well as proactively consider strategies for overcoming obstacles.

The Oxford Handbook of Water Politics and Policy

The Oxford Handbook of Water Politics and Policy

Author: Ken Conca

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199335084

Category: Political Science

Page: 713

View: 200

This handbook is currently in development, with individual articles publishing online in advance of print publication. At this time, we cannot add information about unpublished articles in this handbook, however the table of contents will continue to grow as additional articles pass through the review process and are added to the site. Please note that the online publication date for this handbook is the date that the first article in the title was published online. For more information, please read the site FAQs.

The Politics of Property Rights Institutions in Africa

The Politics of Property Rights Institutions in Africa

Author: Ato Kwamena Onoma

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139485029

Category: Political Science

Page:

View: 265

Why do some political leaders create and strengthen institutions like title registries and land tribunals that secure property rights to land while others neglect these institutions or destroy those that already exist? How do these institutions evolve once they have been established? This book answers these questions through spatial and temporal comparison of national and subnational cases from Botswana, Ghana, and Kenya and, to a lesser extent, Zimbabwe. Onoma argues that the level of property rights security that leaders prefer depends on how they use land. However, the extent to which leaders' institutional preferences are translated into actual institutions depends on the level of leaders' capacity. Further, once established, these institutions through their very working can contribute to their own decline over time. This book is unique in revealing the political and economic reasons why some leaders unlike others prefer an environment of insecure rights even as land prices increase.

The Governance of Rangelands

The Governance of Rangelands

Author: Pedro M. Herrera

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317665175

Category: Nature

Page: 298

View: 977

Rangelands are large natural landscapes that can include grasslands, shrublands, savannahs and woodlands. They are greatly influenced by, and often dependent on, the action of herbivores. In the majority of rangelands the dominant herbivores are found in domestic herds that are managed by mobile pastoralists. Most pastoralists manage their rangelands communally, benefitting from the greater flexibility and seasonal resource access that common property regimes can offer. As this book shows, this creates a major challenge for governance and institutions. This work improves our understanding of the importance of governance, how it can be strengthened and the principles that underpin good governance, in order to prevent degradation of rangelands and ensure their sustainability. It describes the nature of governance at different levels: community governance, state governance, international governance, and the unique features of rangelands that demand collective action (issues of scale, ecological disequilibrium and seasonality). A series of country case studies is presented, drawn from a wide spectrum of examples from Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, Europe and North America. These provide contrasting lessons which are summarised to promote improved governance of rangelands and pastoralist livelihoods.

Building Democratic Institutions

Building Democratic Institutions

Author: G. Shabbir Cheema

Publisher: Kumarian Press

ISBN: 9781565491977

Category: Political Science

Page: 289

View: 110

Annotation Bridges the gap between theoretical literature and the tools and practices needed to strengthen or rebuild democratic institutions and reform governance systems. Through case studies and examples of good practices of governance, Cheema assesses the conditions that make democracy work.

Reducing Inequality for Shared Growth in China

Reducing Inequality for Shared Growth in China

Author: The World Bank

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821385011

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 392

View: 568

Guangdong, a province of over 93 million residents, is located on the southern coast of China, boarding with Hong Kong, China. As China s powerhouse for economic growth and a pioneer of reform and opening up, Guangdong has maintained an annual average GDP growth rate of 13.7 percent over the past three decades. Its historical achievements notwithstanding, Guangdong witnessed increased inequality and regional disparity. To assist the authority in developing a strategy for the new phase of reforms that promotes more inclusive and sustainable growth, Reducing Inequality for Shared Growth in Guangdong Province recommends a three-pillar approach: eliminating absolute poverty, reducing inequality in opportunities, and containing inequality in outcomes. The book also proposes a range of policy actions in these three broad areas. First, to further develop the social assistance program (i.e. the minimum living allowance program ) to address the issue of absolute poverty; Second, to improve income opportunities of the rural poor by better facilitating rural labor migration to non-farming jobs and urban labor markets, deepening rural finance reform, and providing better protection of their rights over land. Third, to invest in people through more equitable access to and financing of social services such as basic education, skills development, and health care. Further reform of the intergovernmental fiscal system is essential to the success of these efforts. This report will be of interest to central and sub-national policy makers, policy implementing agencies, researchers, development partners, and others working on economic and social development in China and in other countries. Guangdong s experience will offer great value to the rest of China and to other countries that are grappling with similar development challenges.

Good Government and Law

Good Government and Law

Author: J. Faundez

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781349252299

Category: Political Science

Page: 286

View: 732

The provision of legal technical assistance has in recent years become a major concern for international financial institutions, such as the World Bank, and for Western-based bilateral donor agencies. This book offers critical perspectives for the evaluation of legal technical assistance projects and contains proposals for action and research. Five chapters offer general perspectives on law, state and civil society and the remaining six case studies on themes such as economic regulation, agrarian reform, representation of women and access to justice.

Governance Reform

Governance Reform

Author: Brian Levy

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821370322

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 176

View: 346

Developing-country governance and its monitoring have risen to the top of the development agenda. This mounting interest is in response to compelling evidence that links governance to development performance-policy quality, public service provision, the investment climate, and the extent of corruption. 'Governance Reform: Bridging, Monitoring, and Action' lays out a broad framework for analyzing and monitoring governance in developing countries. It identifies fourteen core indicators for governance monitoring both broad measures of overall patterns and specific 'actionable' measures that can be used to guide reforms and track progress. The book also summarizes good practices for reforming public bureaucracies and checks and balances institutions (including parliaments, the justice system, media and information, and local governance); highlights improvements in transparency as a relatively low-cost and low-key way of deepening government accountability to civil society; and suggests ways to complement top-down reforms with approaches that focus directly on improving service provision and the investment climate (such as strengthening the bottom-up accountabilities of service providers to communities, firms, and citizens). 'Governance Reform' has no universally applicable trajectory of change. Rather, the aims are: to find country-specific entry points for reform which have development impact in the short-term; to address binding public management constraints, and to help build momentum for further change.

OECD Studies on Water Managing the Water-Energy-Land-Food Nexus in Korea Policies and Governance Options

OECD Studies on Water Managing the Water-Energy-Land-Food Nexus in Korea Policies and Governance Options

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9789264306523

Category:

Page: 160

View: 588

This report assesses the key bottlenecks within the water-energy-land-food nexus in Korea, and proposes policy recommendations and governance arrangements to future-proof environmental integrity and enhance sustainable growth. The increasing pressure caused by urbanisation, industrialisation ...

Improving governance of pastoral lands. Governance of Tenure Technical Guide No. 6

Improving governance of pastoral lands. Governance of Tenure Technical Guide No. 6

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251092927

Category: Law

Page: 151

View: 350

This guide shares a number of initiatives and studies from recent years that have shone a light on pastoral governance and land tenure: on the inherent challenges pastoralists face, the shortcomings of governments in securing pastoral tenure, and emerging examples of success and progress from around the world. This guide proposes solutions to securing pastoral governance and tenure without undermining the inherent complexity of customary arrangements.