Protein-Protein Interactions

Protein-Protein Interactions

Author: Weibo Cai

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789535103974

Category: Science

Page: 488

View: 318

Proteins are indispensable players in virtually all biological events. The functions of proteins are coordinated through intricate regulatory networks of transient protein-protein interactions (PPIs). To predict and/or study PPIs, a wide variety of techniques have been developed over the last several decades. Many in vitro and in vivo assays have been implemented to explore the mechanism of these ubiquitous interactions. However, despite significant advances in these experimental approaches, many limitations exist such as false-positives/false-negatives, difficulty in obtaining crystal structures of proteins, challenges in the detection of transient PPI, among others. To overcome these limitations, many computational approaches have been developed which are becoming increasingly widely used to facilitate the investigation of PPIs. This book has gathered an ensemble of experts in the field, in 22 chapters, which have been broadly categorized into Computational Approaches, Experimental Approaches, and Others.

The Design of Implicit Interactions

The Design of Implicit Interactions

Author: Wendy Ju

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 9781627052689

Category: Computers

Page: 95

View: 250

People rely on implicit interaction in their everyday interactions with one another to exchange queries, offers, responses, and feedback without explicit communication. A look with the eyes, a wave of the hand, the lift of the door handle—small moves can do a lot to enable joint action with elegance and economy. This work puts forward a theory that these implicit patterns of interaction with one another drive our expectations of how we should interact with devices. I introduce the Implicit Interaction Framework as a tool to map out interaction trajectories, and we use these trajectories to better understand the interactions transpiring around us. By analyzing everyday implicit interactions for patterns and tactics, designers of interactive devices can better understand how to design interactions that work or to remedy interactions that fail. This book looks at the “smart,” “automatic,” and “interactive” devices that increasingly permeate our everyday lives—doors, switches, whiteboards—and provides a close reading of how we interact with them. These vignettes add to the growing body of research targeted at teasing out the factors at play in our interactions. I take a look at current research, which indicates that our reactions to interactions are social, even if the entities we are interacting with are not human. These research insights are applied to allow us to refine and improve interactive devices so that they work better in the context of our day-to-day lives. Finally this book looks to the future, and outlines considerations that need to be taken into account in prototyping and validating devices that employ implicit interaction.

Analyzing Group Interactions

Analyzing Group Interactions

Author: Matthias Huber

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000059489

Category: Social Science

Page: 218

View: 809

Analyzing Group Interactions gives a comprehensive overview of the use of different methods for the analysis of group interactions. International experts from a range of different disciplines within the social sciences illustrate their step-by-step procedures of how they analyze interactions within groups and explain what kind of data and skills are needed to get started. Each method is discussed in the same, structured manner, focusing on each method’s strengths and weaknesses, its applicability and requirements, and the precise workflow to "follow along" when analyzing group interactions with the respective method. The analyzing strategies covered in this book include ethnographical approaches, phenomenology, content analysis, documentary method, discourse analysis, grounded theory, social network analysis, quantitative ratings, and several triangulative and mixed-method research designs. This volume is recommended for researchers at all levels that need guidance with the complex task of analyzing group interactions. The unified structure throughout the book facilitates comparison across the different methods and helps with deciding on the approach to be taken.

The Law of Interactions Between International Organizations

The Law of Interactions Between International Organizations

Author: Henner Gött

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783662623893

Category: Law

Page: 526

View: 516

The book analyses how international law addresses interactions between international organizations. In labour governance, these interactions are ubiquitous. They offer each organization an opportunity to promote its model of labour governance, yet simultaneously expose it to adverse influence from others. The book captures this ambivalence and examines the capacity of international law to mitigate it. Based on detailed case studies of mutual influence between the International Labour Organization, the World Bank, and the Council of Europe, the book offers an in-depth analysis of the pertinent law and its key challenges, both at institutional and inter-organizational level. The author envisions a law of inter-organizational interactions as a normative framework structuring interactions and enhancing the effectiveness and legitimacy of multi-institutional governance.

Cell Interactions in Differentiation

Cell Interactions in Differentiation

Author: Marketta Karkinen-Jaaskelainen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323150552

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 592

Cell Interactions in Differentiation is a collection of papers presented at the Sixth Sigrid Jusélius Foundation Symposium held in Helsinki, Finland, in August 1976. Contributors discuss cell interactions during differentiation, particularly referring to the problem of embryonic induction. They also consider how a cell becomes adjusted to the synchronized development of an entire multicellular organism, so as to express its genetic information at a strictly controlled time and place. This volume is organized into five sections encompassing 30 chapters and begins with an overview of embryonic cells and their two fundamental properties. Cells are not necessarily predetermined and can be experimentally diverted from their normal developmental pathway, and those within an embryonic organism require extrinsic messages to express their developmental capacities. The next chapters focus on early determinative events in embryogenesis, touching on topics such as the genetic aspects of cell type determination, interactions between embryonic cells during the early development of the mouse, and the differentiation of teratocarcinoma stem cells in vitro. The reader is then introduced to positional information and morphogenetic signals; the biological ""specificity"" of morphogenetic tissue interactions; and the molecular mechanisms underlying cell contact interactions. The remaining chapters explore some of the most important conceptual and methodological approaches to the problems of cell-cell recognition and the integration of cells into multicellular systems. This book will be of interest to scientists and investigators in developmental biology and related fields.

Sexual Interactions in Eukaryotic Microbes

Sexual Interactions in Eukaryotic Microbes

Author: Danton O'Day

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323150972

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 160

Sexual Interactions in Eukaryotic Microbes provides a comprehensive discussion of the sexual processes of eukaryotic microorganisms. The book is organized into three parts. Part I presents an overview of intercellular communication, covering the modes of cellular communication and the benefit of using eukaryotic microbes for studying cell communication. Part II on pheromonal interactions includes studies on the role of sex pheromones in organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Allomyces, Volvox, and Neurospora crassa. Part III on cell surface interactions presents studies such as sexual interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; sexual interactions of the cell surface in Paramecium; and the genetics and cellular biology of sexual development in Ustilago violacea. This book will be of value on a multitude of levels: from a general reference text to a source of research ideas. It will appeal to a wide spectrum of readers in a large number of disciplines, but will be particularly useful to cell biologists, microbiologists, protozoologists, and mycologists interested in the study of cellular communication.

Opinion Analysis in Interactions

Opinion Analysis in Interactions

Author: Chloe Clavel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781786304193

Category: Mathematics

Page: 162

View: 586

As time goes on, big companies such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google and Apple become increasingly interested in virtual assistants. The interest and development of social robots has put research into affective and social computing at the forefront of the scene. The aim of Opinion Analysis in Interactions is to present methods based on artificial intelligence through a combination of machine learning models and symbolic approaches. Also discussed are natural language processing and affective computing, via the analysis and generation of socio-emotional signals. The book explores the analysis of opinions in human–human interaction and tackles the less-explored (yet crucial) challenges related to the analysis methods of user opinions within the context of human–agent interaction. It also illustrates the implementation of strategies for selecting and generating agent utterances in response to user opinions, and opens up perspectives on the agent’s multimodal generation of utterances that hold attitudes.

Human-Computer Interactions in Museums

Human-Computer Interactions in Museums

Author: Eva Hornecker

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 9781681735146

Category: Computers

Page: 173

View: 162

Museums have been a domain of study and design intervention for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) for several decades. However, while resources providing overviews on the key issues in the scholarship have been produced in the fields of museum and visitor studies, no such resource as yet existed within HCI. This book fills this gap and covers key issues regarding the study and design of HCIs in museums. Through an on-site focus, the book examines how digital interactive technologies impact and shape galleries, exhibitions, and their visitors. It consolidates the body of work in HCI conducted in the heritage field and integrates it with insights from related fields and from digital heritage practice. Processes of HCI design and evaluation approaches for museums are also discussed. This book draws from the authors' extensive knowledge of case studies as well as from their own work to provide examples, reflections, and illustrations of relevant concepts and problems. This book is designed for students and early career researchers in HCI or Interaction Design, for more seasoned investigators who might approach the museum domain for the first time, and for researchers and practitioners in related fields such as heritage and museum studies or visitor studies. Designers who might wish to understand the HCI perspective on visitor-facing interactive technologies may also find this book useful.

School and Community Interactions

School and Community Interactions

Author: Andreas Brunold

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783531194776

Category: Education

Page: 254

View: 337

Within the European and Asian context scientists from nine different countries are concerned with political and social interactional structures between schools as public institutions and the local political actors which influence the school environment. The contributions give answers to questions regarding the cooperation between school administrations and community, to civic education for sustainable development at the interface between school and community, to teachers as moderators for political and democratic educational processes and to models for successful cooperation between schools and local political actors.

Kinetics of Enzyme-Modifier Interactions

Kinetics of Enzyme-Modifier Interactions

Author: Antonio Baici

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783709114025

Category: Science

Page: 489

View: 622

The kinetic mechanisms by which enzymes interact with inhibitors and activators, collectively called modifiers, are scrutinized and ranked taxonomically into autonomous species in a way similar to that used in the biological classification of plants and animals. The systematization of the mechanisms is based on two fundamental characters: the allosteric linkage between substrate and modifier and the factor by which a modifier affects the catalytic constant of the enzyme. Combinations of the physically significant states of these two characters in an ancestor-descendant-like fashion reveal the existence of seventeen modes of interaction that cover the needs of total, partial and fine-tuning modulation of enzyme activity. These interactions comprise five linear and five hyperbolic inhibition mechanisms, five nonessential activation mechanisms and two hybrid species that manifest either hyperbolic inhibition or nonessential activation characteristics depending on substrate concentration. Five essential activation mechanisms, which are taxonomically independent of the mentioned basic species, complete the inventory of enzyme modifiers. Often masked under conventional umbrella terms or treated as anomalous cases, all seventeen basic inhibition and nonessential activation mechanisms are represented in the biochemical and pharmacological literature of this and the past century, either in the form of rapid or slow-onset reversible interactions, or as irreversible modification processes. The full potential of enzyme inhibitors and activators can only be appreciated after elucidating the details of their kinetic mechanisms of action exploring the entire range of physiologically significant reactant concentrations. This book highlights the wide spectrum of allosteric enzyme modification in physiological occurrences as well as in pharmacological and biotechnological applications that embrace simple and multiple enzyme-modifier interactions. The reader is guided in the journey through this still partly uncharted territory with the aid of mechanistically-oriented criteria aimed at showing the logical way towards the identification of a particular mechanism.