Flexibel aus Tradition Burji in Äthiopien und Kenia

Flexibel aus Tradition Burji in Äthiopien und Kenia

Author: Hermann Amborn

Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag

ISBN: 3447060832

Category: Social Science

Page: 356

View: 601

Seit den ersten ethnologischen Untersuchungen Mitte der 1930er Jahre wurde der Sudwesten Athiopiens zu einem Schwerpunkt deutscher Forschungen. Damit haben wir den seltenen Fall einer 70 Jahre wahrenden kontinuierlichen Forschung uber eine ehemals bauerliche Gesellschaft Sudwest-Athiopiens, deren Mitglieder heute grossenteils in Diasporagemeinden leben.Als Zielsetzungen ergaben sich daraus fur das Werk die beschreibende Interpretation der Burji-Gesellschaft (Aussen- und Innensicht) einschliesslich ihrer Veranderungen im genannten Zeitraum. Daran schliessen sich Betrachtungen uber den Wandel ethnologischer Ansatze an, die zur kritischen Reflexion der Forschungskonzepte herausforderten. Im Laufe ihrer Geschichte entwickelten die Burji auf der Grundlageeines intensiven Dauerfeldbaus eine komplexe Wirtschaftsweise, einhergehend mit einer Sozialstruktur aus vielfaltig ineinandergreifenden Institutionen, die keiner zentralen Fuhrung bedurften. Dies ermoglicht ihnen bis heute den flexiblen Umgang mit okonomischen und politischen Veranderungen.Die Studie uber die Burji ist als markantes lokales Beispiel fur die Bandbreite moglicher Reaktionen auf globale Beeinflussung anzusehen, das Geltung uber den Einzelfall hinaus erlangt und die Gefahren gesellschaftlicher Pauschalisierungen deutlich macht.

African Archaeology Without Frontiers

African Archaeology Without Frontiers

Author: Chapurukha M Kusimba

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9781776141616

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 190

View: 392

Confronting national, linguistic and disciplinary boundaries, contributors to African Archaeology Without Frontiers argue against artificial limits and divisions created through the study of ‘ages’ that in reality overlap and cannot and should not be understood in isolation. Papers are drawn from the proceedings of the landmark 14th PanAfrican Archaeological Association Congress, held in Johannesburg in 2014, nearly seven decades after the conference planned for 1951 was re-located to Algiers for ideological reasons following the National Party’s rise to power in South Africa. Contributions by keynote speakers Chapurukha Kusimba and Akin Ogundiran encourage African archaeologists to practise an archaeology that collaborates across many related fields of study to enrich our understanding of the past. The nine papers cover a broad geographical sweep by incorporating material on ongoing projects throughout the continent including South Africa, Botswana, Cameroon, Togo, Tanzania, Kenya and Nigeria. Thematically, the papers included in the volume address issues of identity and interaction, and the need to balance cultural heritage management and sustainable development derived from a continent racked by social inequalities and crippling poverty. Edited by three leading archaeologists, the collection covers many aspects of African archaeology, and a range of periods from the earliest hominins to the historical period. It will appeal to specialists and interested amateurs.

Humans and the Environment

Humans and the Environment

Author: Matthew I. J. Davies

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191029936

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 122

The environment has always been a central concept for archaeologists and, although it has been conceived in many ways, its role in archaeological explanation has fluctuated from a mere backdrop to human action, to a primary factor in the understanding of society and social change. Archaeology also has a unique position as its base of interest places it temporally between geological and ethnographic timescales, spatially between global and local dimensions, and epistemologically between empirical studies of environmental change and more heuristic studies of cultural practice. Drawing on data from across the globe at a variety of temporal and spatial scales, this volume resituates the way in which archaeologists use and apply the concept of the environment. Each chapter critically explores the potential for archaeological data and practice to contribute to modern environmental issues, including problems of climate change and environmental degradation. Overall the volume covers four basic themes: archaeological approaches to the way in which both scientists and locals conceive of the relationship between humans and their environment, applied environmental archaeology, the archaeology of disaster, and new interdisciplinary directions.The volume will be of interest to students and established archaeologists, as well as practitioners from a range of applied disciplines.

Precolonial African Material Culture

Precolonial African Material Culture

Author: V Tarikhu Farrar

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781793606433

Category:

Page: 318

View: 649

The idea of an inherent backwardness of technology and material culture in early sub-Saharan Africa is a persistent and tenacious myth in the scholarly and popular imagination. Due to the emergence of the field of African studies and the upsurge in historical and archaeological research, in recent decades the stridency of this myth has weakened, and the overtly racist content of arguments mustered in its defense have tended to disappear. But more important are transformations in social, political, and cultural consciousness, which have worked to reshape conceptualizations of African peoples, their histories, and their cultures. Precolonial African Material Culture offers a thorough challenge to the myth of technological backwardness. V. Tarikhu Farrar revisits the early technology of sub-Saharan Africa as revealed by recent research and reconsiders long-possessed primary historical sources. He then explores the ways that indigenous African technologies have influenced the world beyond the African continent.

Twilight of an Industry in East Africa

Twilight of an Industry in East Africa

Author: Katharine Frederick

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030439200

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 261

View: 208

Cotton textile industries vanished from much of East Africa during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This book investigates the underlying causes of industrial arrest in the region through a series of in-depth case studies. Findings are considered in light of existing studies on comparatively more resilient textile centers elsewhere on the continent to derive insights into the determinants of differing industrial trajectories across sub-Saharan Africa. The author argues that scholars have placed undue weight on global forces as the primary drivers of industrial decline in the Global South. Rather, this book reveals how local factors – principally demographic, geographic, and institutional features – interacted with external forces to influence unique regional outcomes during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as sub-Saharan African was increasingly integrated into global trade networks and European colonial empires.

East Africa’s Human Environment Interactions

East Africa’s Human Environment Interactions

Author: Rob Marchant

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030889876

Category: Political Science

Page: 411

View: 963

This book is an ambitious integration of ecological, archaeological, anthropological land use sciences, drawing on human geography, demography and economics of development across the East Africa region. It focuses on understanding and unpicking the interactions that have taken place between the natural and unnatural history of the East African region and trace this interaction from the evolutionary foundations of our species (c. 200,000 years ago), through the outwards and inwards human migrations, often associated with the adoption of subsistence strategies, new technologies and the arrival of new crops. The book will explore the impact of technological developments such as transitions to tool making, metallurgy, and the arrival of crops also involved an international dimension and waves of human migrations in and out of East Africa. Time will be presented with a widening focus that will frame the contemporary with a particular focus on the Anthropocene (last 500 years) to the present day. Many of the current challenges have their foundations in precolonial and colonial history and as such there will be a focus on how these have evolved and the impact on environmental and human landscapes. Moving into the Anthropocene era, there was increasing exposure to the International drivers of change, such as those associated with Ivory and slave trade. These international trade routes were tied into the ensuing decimation of elephant populations through to the exploitation of natural mineral resources have been sought after through to the present day. The book will provide a balanced perspective on the region, the people, and how the natural and unnatural histories have combined to create a dynamic region. These historical perspectives will be galvanized to outline the future changes and the challenges they will bring around such issues as sustainable development, space for wildlife and people, and the position of East Africa within a globalized world and how this is potentially going to evolve over the coming decades.

Landesque Capital

Landesque Capital

Author: N Thomas Håkansson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315425689

Category: Social Science

Page: 281

View: 232

This book is the first comprehensive, global treatment of landesque capital, a widespread concept used to understand anthropogenic landscapes that serve important economic, social, and ritual purposes. Spanning the disciplines of anthropology, human ecology, geography, archaeology, and history, chapters combine theoretical rigor with in-depth empirical studies of major landscape modifications from ancient to contemporary times. They assess not only degradation but also the social, political, and economic institutions and contexts that make sustainability possible. Offering tightly edited, original contributions from leading scholars, this book will have a lasting influence on the study long-term human-environment relations in the human and natural sciences.

Self-Sufficient Agriculture

Self-Sufficient Agriculture

Author: Robert Tripp

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 9781849772495

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 901

Low external-input technology (or LEIT) is an increasingly prominent subject in discussions of sustainable agriculture. There are growing calls for self-sufficient agriculture in an era experiencing diminishing returns from reliance upon expensive synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. There are many reasons to support strategies for low external input farming, including a concern for environmental sustainability, increased attention to resource-poor farmers and marginal environments, and the conviction that a better use of local resources in small-scale agriculture can improve farm productivity and innovation. But despite the increased attention to self-sufficient agriculture, there is little evidence available on the performance and impact of LEIT. This book examines the contributions and limitations of low external input technology for addressing the needs of resource-poor farmers. For the first time a balanced analysis of LEIT is provided, offering in-depth case studies, an analysis of the debates, an extensive review of the literature and practical suggestions about the management and integration of low external input agriculture in rural development programmes.

Elixir

Elixir

Author: Brian Fagan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 9781608193578

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 590

Elixir spans five millennia, from ancient Mesopotamia to the parched present of the Sun Belt. As Brian Fagan shows, every human society has been shaped by its relationship toour most essential resource. Fagan's sweeping narrative moves across the world, from ancient Greece and Rome, whose mighty aqueducts still supply modern cities, to China, where emperors marshaled armies of laborers in a centuries-long struggle to tame powerful rivers. He sets out three ages of water: In the first age, lasting thousands of years, water was scarce or at best unpredictable-so precious that it became sacred in almost every culture. By the time of the Industrial Revolution, human ingenuity had made water flow even in the most arid landscapes.This was the second age: water was no longer a mystical force to be worshipped and husbanded, but a commodity to be exploited. The American desert glittered with swimming pools- with little regard for sustainability. Today, we are entering a third age of water: As the earth's population approaches nine billion and ancient aquifers run dry,we will have to learn once again to show humility, even reverence, for this vital liquid. To solve the water crises of the future, we may need to adapt the water ethos of our ancestors.