Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines

Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines

Author: J.H. Fetzer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401009737

Category: Computers

Page: 352

View: 280

An important collection of studies providing a fresh and original perspective on the nature of mind, including thoughtful and detailed arguments that explain why the prevailing paradigm - the computational conception of language and mentality - can no longer be sustained. An alternative approach is advanced, inspired by the work of Charles S. Peirce, according to which minds are sign-using (or `semiotic') systems, which in turn generates distinctions between different kinds of minds and overcomes problems that burden more familiar alternatives. Unlike conceptions of minds as machines, this novel approach has obvious evolutionary implications, where differences in semiotic abilities tend to distinguish the species. From this point of view, the scope and limits of computer and AI systems can be more adequately appraised and alternative accounts of consciousness and cognition can be more thoroughly criticised. Readership: Intermediate and advanced students of computer science, AI, cognitive science, and all students of the philosophy of the mind.

Minds and Computers

Minds and Computers

Author: Matt Carter

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 9780748629305

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 361

Could a computer have a mind? What kind of machine would this be? Exactly what do we mean by 'mind' anyway?The notion of the 'intelligent' machine, whilst continuing to feature in numerous entertaining and frightening fictions, has also been the focus of a serious and dedicated research tradition. Reflecting on these fictions, and on the research tradition that pursues 'Artificial Intelligence', raises a number of vexing philosophical issues. Minds and Computers introduces readers to these issues by offering an engaging, coherent, and highly approachable interdisciplinary introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence.Readers are presented with introductory material from each of the disciplines which constitute Cognitive Science: Philosophy, Neuroscience, Psychology, Computer Science, and Linguistics. Throughout, readers are encouraged to consider the implications of this disparate and wide-ranging material for the possibility of developing machines with minds. And they can expect to de

The Mechanical Mind

The Mechanical Mind

Author: Tim Crane

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317331780

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 190

How can the human mind represent the external world? What is thought, and can it be studied scientifically? Should we think of the mind as a kind of machine? Is the mind a computer? Can a computer think? Tim Crane sets out to answer these questions and more in a lively and straightforward way, presuming no prior knowledge of philosophy or related disciplines. Since its first publication, The Mechanical Mind has introduced thousands of people to some of the most important ideas in contemporary philosophy of mind. Crane explains the fundamental ideas that cut across philosophy of mind, artificial intelligence and cognitive science: what the mind–body problem is; what a computer is and how it works; what thoughts are and how computers and minds might have them. He examines different theories of the mind from dualist to eliminativist, and questions whether there can be thought without language and whether the mind is subject to the same causal laws as natural phenomena. The result is a fascinating exploration of the theories and arguments surrounding the notions of thought and representation. This third edition has been fully revised and updated, and includes a wholly new chapter on externalism about mental content and the extended and embodied mind. There is a stronger emphasis on the environmental and bodily context in which thought occurs. Many chapters have been reorganised to make the reader’s passage through the book easier. The book now contains a much more detailed guide to further reading, and the chronology and the glossary of technical terms have also been updated. The Mechanical Mind is accessible to anyone interested in the mechanisms of our minds, and essential reading for those studying philosophy of mind, philosophy of psychology, or cognitive psychology.

Mind as Machine

Mind as Machine

Author: Margaret A. Boden

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199241449

Category: Philosophy

Page: 1631

View: 196

Cognitive science is among the most fascinating intellectual achievements of the modern era. The quest to understand the mind is an ancient one. But modern science has offered new insights and techniques that have revolutionized this enquiry. Oxford University Press now presents a masterlyhistory of the field, told by one of its most eminent practitioners.Psychology is the thematic heart of cognitive science, which aims to understand human (and animal) minds. But its core theoretical ideas are drawn from cybernetics and artificial intelligence, and many cognitive scientists try to build functioning models of how the mind works. In that sense,Margaret Boden suggests, its key insight is that mind is a (very special) machine. Because the mind has many different aspects, the field is highly interdisciplinary. It integrates psychology not only with cybernetics/AI, but also with neuroscience and clinical neurology; with the philosophy ofmind, language, and logic; with linguistic work on grammar, semantics, and communication; with anthropological studies of cultures; and with biological (and A-Life) research on animal behaviour, evolution, and life itself. Each of these disciplines, in its own way, asks what the mind is, what itdoes, how it works, how it develops---and how it is even possible.Boden traces the key questions back to Descartes's revolutionary writings, and to the ideas of his followers--and his radical critics--through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Her story shows how controversies in the development of experimental physiology, neurophysiology, psychology,evolutionary biology, embryology, and logic are still relevant today. Then she guides the reader through the complex interlinked paths along which the study of mind developed in the twentieth century. Cognitive science covers all mental phenomena: not just 'cognition' (knowledge), but also emotion,personality, psychopathology, social communication, religion, motor action, and consciousness. In each area, Boden introduces the key ideas and researchers and discusses those philosophical critics who see cognitive science as fundamentally misguided. And she sketches the waves of resistance andacceptance on the part of the media and general public, showing how these have affected the development of the field.No one else could tell this story as Boden can: she has been a member of the cognitive science community since the late-1950s, and has known many of its key figures personally. Her narrative is written in a lively, swift-moving style, enriched by the personal touch of someone who knows the story atfirst hand. Her history looks forward as well as back: besides asking how state-of-the-art research compares with the hopes of the early pioneers, she identifies the most promising current work. Mind as Machine will be a rich resource for anyone working on the mind, in any academic discipline, whowants to know how our understanding of mental capacities has advanced over the years.

Why the Mind Is Not a Computer

Why the Mind Is Not a Computer

Author: Raymond Tallis

Publisher: Andrews UK Limited

ISBN: 9781845405342

Category: Psychology

Page: 109

View: 961

The equation "Mind = Machine" is false. This pocket lexicon of "neuromythology" shows why. Taking a series of key words such as calculation, language, information and memory, Professor Tallis shows how their misuse has a lured a whole generation into accepting the computational model of the mind. First of all these words were used literally in the description of the human mind. Then computer scientists applied them metaphorically to the workings of their machines. And finally, their metaphorical status forgotten, the use of the terms was called as evidence of artificial intelligence in machines and the computational nature of conscious thought.

Machinery of the Mind

Machinery of the Mind

Author: George Johnson

Publisher: Crown

ISBN: 9780307799395

Category: Computers

Page: 336

View: 788

Machinery of Mind is a full-scale, indispensable examination of the history, content, politics, and philosophy of Artificial Intelligence. In detail, consecutively but with a keen awareness of the interdisciplinary nature of the field, Johnson traces the history of the burgeoning science from its earliest practitioners to corporation-funded engineers and experts: Roger Schank, Terry Winograd, Doug Lenat and others who are struggling to create machines that can actually think independently, going beyond man-made programs and "games." Johnson presents the counterarguments of some theorists that intelligence is less than soul and that the "new science" moves arrogantly into dangerous territory. Necessarily inconclusive, this fascinating study is clear, comprehensive, richly detailed, and endlessly provocative.

The Mind and the Machine

The Mind and the Machine

Author: Matthew T. Dickerson

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 9781498203845

Category: Philosophy

Page: 242

View: 250

Are humans just complex biochemical machines, mere physical parts of a causally closed materialist universe? Are we approaching the so-called "Singularity" when human consciousness can (and will) be downloaded into computers? Or is there more to the human person--something that might be known as soul or spirit? As this book makes clear, the answers to these questions have profound implications to topics such as heroism, creativity, ecology, and the possibility of reason and science. In exploring this important topic, Dickerson engages the ideas of some well-known twentieth- and twenty-first-century espousers of physicalism, including philosopher Daniel Dennett (Consciousness Explained), biologist Richard Dawkins (The God Delusion), futurist-engineer Raymond Kurzweil (The Age of Spiritual Machines), psychologist B. F. Skinner (Beyond Freedom and Dignity), and mathematician-philosopher Bertrand Russell (Why I Am Not a Christian). Through a careful reading of their works, Dickerson not only provides a five-fold critique of physicalism, but also offers a Christian alternative in the form of "integrative dualism," which affirms the existence of both a physical and spiritual reality without diminishing the goodness or importance of either, and acknowledges that humans are spiritual as well as bodily persons.

This is Philosophy of Mind

This is Philosophy of Mind

Author: Pete Mandik

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118607398

Category: Philosophy

Page: 264

View: 377

This is Philosophy of Mind presents students of philosophy with an accessible introduction to the core issues related to the philosophy of mind. Includes issues related to the mind-body problem, artificial intelligence, free will, the nature of consciousness, and more Written to be accessible to philosophy students early in their studies Features supplemental online resources on www.thisisphilosophy.com and a frequently updated companion blog, at http://tipom.blogspot.com

Mind and Machine

Mind and Machine

Author: J. Walmsley

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137283429

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 740

Walmsley offers a succinct introduction to major philosophical issues in artificial intelligence for advanced students of philosophy of mind, cognitive science and psychology. Whilst covering essential topics, it also provides the student with the chance to engage with cutting edge debates.