Computational Intelligence - Volume I

Computational Intelligence - Volume I

Author: Hisao Ishibuchi

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 9781780210209

Category:

Page: 400

View: 846

Computational intelligence is a component of Encyclopedia of Technology, Information, and Systems Management Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Computational intelligence is a rapidly growing research field including a wide variety of problem-solving techniques inspired by nature. Traditionally computational intelligence consists of three major research areas: Neural Networks, Fuzzy Systems, and Evolutionary Computation. Neural networks are mathematical models inspired by brains. Neural networks have massively parallel network structures with many neurons and weighted connections. Whereas each neuron has a simple input-output relation, a neural network with many neurons can realize a highly non-linear complicated mapping. Connection weights between neurons can be adjusted in an automated manner by a learning algorithm to realize a non-linear mapping required in a particular application task. Fuzzy systems are mathematical models proposed to handle inherent fuzziness in natural language. For example, it is very difficult to mathematically define the meaning of “cold” in everyday conversations such as “It is cold today” and “Can I have cold water”. The meaning of “cold” may be different in a different situation. Even in the same situation, a different person may have a different meaning. Fuzzy systems offer a mathematical mechanism to handle inherent fuzziness in natural language. As a result, fuzzy systems have been successfully applied to real-world problems by extracting linguistic knowledge from human experts in the form of fuzzy IF-THEN rules. Evolutionary computation includes various population-based search algorithms inspired by evolution in nature. Those algorithms usually have the following three mechanisms: fitness evaluation to measure the quality of each solution, selection to choose good solutions from the current population, and variation operators to generate offspring from parents. Evolutionary computation has high applicability to a wide range of optimization problems with different characteristics since it does not need any explicit mathematical formulations of objective functions. For example, simulation-based fitness evaluation is often used in evolutionary design. Subjective fitness evaluation by a human user is also often used in evolutionary art and music. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.

Computational Intelligence - Volume II

Computational Intelligence - Volume II

Author: Hisao Ishibuchi

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 9781780210216

Category:

Page: 410

View: 274

Computational intelligence is a component of Encyclopedia of Technology, Information, and Systems Management Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Computational intelligence is a rapidly growing research field including a wide variety of problem-solving techniques inspired by nature. Traditionally computational intelligence consists of three major research areas: Neural Networks, Fuzzy Systems, and Evolutionary Computation. Neural networks are mathematical models inspired by brains. Neural networks have massively parallel network structures with many neurons and weighted connections. Whereas each neuron has a simple input-output relation, a neural network with many neurons can realize a highly non-linear complicated mapping. Connection weights between neurons can be adjusted in an automated manner by a learning algorithm to realize a non-linear mapping required in a particular application task. Fuzzy systems are mathematical models proposed to handle inherent fuzziness in natural language. For example, it is very difficult to mathematically define the meaning of “cold” in everyday conversations such as “It is cold today” and “Can I have cold water”. The meaning of “cold” may be different in a different situation. Even in the same situation, a different person may have a different meaning. Fuzzy systems offer a mathematical mechanism to handle inherent fuzziness in natural language. As a result, fuzzy systems have been successfully applied to real-world problems by extracting linguistic knowledge from human experts in the form of fuzzy IF-THEN rules. Evolutionary computation includes various population-based search algorithms inspired by evolution in nature. Those algorithms usually have the following three mechanisms: fitness evaluation to measure the quality of each solution, selection to choose good solutions from the current population, and variation operators to generate offspring from parents. Evolutionary computation has high applicability to a wide range of optimization problems with different characteristics since it does not need any explicit mathematical formulations of objective functions. For example, simulation-based fitness evaluation is often used in evolutionary design. Subjective fitness evaluation by a human user is also often used in evolutionary art and music. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers.

Design for Excellence

Design for Excellence

Author: Sangarappillai Sivaloganathan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1860582591

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 874

View: 346

Design for Excellence contains papers from a conference organised by Brunel University. This book will be useful for designers, engineers, software developers, and other technologists working in a wide variety of engineering applications. Both those working in industry and in the academic environment will want to have access to this valuble resource. CONTENTS INCLUDE: A strategic overview of UK product development Technology management – a methodology towards achieving design excellence within the pharmaceutical industry Designing safer systems – the application of human factors methods From environmental assessment results to DFE product changes – an evaluation of quantitative and qualitative methods Design determines 70 percent of cost? A review of implications for design evaluation Using correlation chains to link customer requirements and physical laws How to manage ‘3-GEN’ products and services Strain based shallow shell finite element for circular cylindrical shells Validation of manufacturing facilities in the pharmaceuticals industry The use of formal design techniques in the development of a model device Aesthetic intelligence – optimizing user-centred design Tendering for engineering contracts An investigation on specifications – component, source information areas, and contents

Kurt Gödel: Collected Works:

Kurt Gödel: Collected Works:

Author: Kurt Gödel

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 9780191003769

Category: Mathematics

Page: 686

View: 258

Kurt Gödel (1906 - 1978) was the most outstanding logician of the twentieth century, famous for his hallmark works on the completeness of logic, the incompleteness of number theory, and the consistency of the axiom of choice and the continuum hypothesis. He is also noted for his work on constructivity, the decision problem, and the foundations of computability theory, as well as for the strong individuality of his writings on the philosophy of mathematics. He is less well known for his discovery of unusual cosmological models for Einstein's equations, in theory permitting time travel into the past. The Collected Works is a landmark resource that draws together a lifetime of creative thought and accomplishment. The first two volumes were devoted to Gödel's publications in full (both in original and translation), and the third volume featured a wide selection of unpublished articles and lecture texts found in Gödel's Nachlass. These long-awaited final two volumes contain Gödel's correspondence of logical, philosophical, and scientific interest. Volume IV covers A to G, with H to Z in volume V; in addition, Volume V contains a full inventory of Gödel's Nachlass. All volumes include introductory notes that provide extensive explanatory and historical commentary on each body of work, English translations of material originally written in German (some transcribed from the Gabelsberger shorthand), and a complete bibliography of all works cited. Kurt Gödel: Collected Works is designed to be useful and accessible to as wide an audience as possible without sacrificing scientific or historical accuracy. The only comprehensive edition of Gödel's work available, it will be an essential part of the working library of professionals and students in logic, mathematics, philosophy, history of science, and computer science and all others who wish to be acquainted with one of the great minds of the twentieth century.

The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, Volume 1

The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, Volume 1

Author: Irving B. Weiner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470170250

Category: Psychology

Page: 482

View: 913

Psychologists, researchers, teachers, and students need complete and comprehensive information in the fields of psychology and behavioral science. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, Volume One has been the reference of choice for almost three decades. This indispensable resource is updated and expanded to include much new material. It uniquely and effectively blends psychology and behavioral science. The Fourth Edition features over 1,200 entries; complete coverage of DSM disorders; and a bibliography of over 10,000 citations. Readers will benefit from up-to-date and authoritative coverage of every major area of psychology.

Machines and Thought

Machines and Thought

Author: P. J. R. Millican

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 9780198235934

Category: Philosophy

Page: 309

View: 127

This is the first of two volumes of essays in commemoration of Alan Turing, whose pioneering work in the theory of artificial intelligence and computer science continues to be widely discussed today. A distinguished international cast of contributors focus on the three seminal ideas associated with his name: the Turing test, the Turing machine, and the Church-Turing thesis.

The Primacy of Doubt

The Primacy of Doubt

Author: Timothy Palmer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192843593

Category:

Page: 321

View: 762

A bold, visionary, and mind-bending exploration of how the geometry of chaos can explain our uncertain world - from weather and pandemics to quantum physics and free willCovering a breathtaking range of topics - from climate change to the foundations of quantum physics, from economic modelling to conflict prediction, from free will to consciousness and spirituality - The Primacy of Doubt takes us on a unique journey through the science of uncertainty. A key theme that unifies these seemingly unconnected topics is the geometry of chaos: the beautiful and profound fractal structures that lie at the heart of much of modern mathematics. Royal SocietyResearch Professor Tim Palmer shows us how the geometry of chaos not only provides the means to predict the world around us, it suggests new insights into some of the most astonishing aspects of our universe and ourselves. This important and timely book helps the reader makes sense of uncertainty in a rapidlychanging world.

Machine Learning

Machine Learning

Author: Ryszard S. Michalski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080510545

Category: Computers

Page: 572

View: 382

Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach contains tutorial overviews and research papers representative of trends in the area of machine learning as viewed from an artificial intelligence perspective. The book is organized into six parts. Part I provides an overview of machine learning and explains why machines should learn. Part II covers important issues affecting the design of learning programs—particularly programs that learn from examples. It also describes inductive learning systems. Part III deals with learning by analogy, by experimentation, and from experience. Parts IV and V discuss learning from observation and discovery, and learning from instruction, respectively. Part VI presents two studies on applied learning systems—one on the recovery of valuable information via inductive inference; the other on inducing models of simple algebraic skills from observed student performance in the context of the Leeds Modeling System (LMS). This book is intended for researchers in artificial intelligence, computer science, and cognitive psychology; students in artificial intelligence and related disciplines; and a diverse range of readers, including computer scientists, robotics experts, knowledge engineers, educators, philosophers, data analysts, psychologists, and electronic engineers.

A Guided Tour of Artificial Intelligence Research

A Guided Tour of Artificial Intelligence Research

Author: Pierre Marquis

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030061647

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 803

View: 318

The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of AI research, ranging from basic work to interfaces and applications, with as much emphasis on results as on current issues. It is aimed at an audience of master students and Ph.D. students, and can be of interest as well for researchers and engineers who want to know more about AI. The book is split into three volumes: - the first volume brings together twenty-three chapters dealing with the foundations of knowledge representation and the formalization of reasoning and learning (Volume 1. Knowledge representation, reasoning and learning) - the second volume offers a view of AI, in fourteen chapters, from the side of the algorithms (Volume 2. AI Algorithms) - the third volume, composed of sixteen chapters, describes the main interfaces and applications of AI (Volume 3. Interfaces and applications of AI). Implementing reasoning or decision making processes requires an appropriate representation of the pieces of information to be exploited. This first volume starts with a historical chapter sketching the slow emergence of building blocks of AI along centuries. Then the volume provides an organized overview of different logical, numerical, or graphical representation formalisms able to handle incomplete information, rules having exceptions, probabilistic and possibilistic uncertainty (and beyond), as well as taxonomies, time, space, preferences, norms, causality, and even trust and emotions among agents. Different types of reasoning, beyond classical deduction, are surveyed including nonmonotonic reasoning, belief revision, updating, information fusion, reasoning based on similarity (case-based, interpolative, or analogical), as well as reasoning about actions, reasoning about ontologies (description logics), argumentation, and negotiation or persuasion between agents. Three chapters deal with decision making, be it multiple criteria, collective, or under uncertainty. Two chapters cover statistical computational learning and reinforcement learning (other machine learning topics are covered in Volume 2). Chapters on diagnosis and supervision, validation and explanation, and knowledge base acquisition complete the volume.