Nouns In the English Language: Types and Examples

Nouns In the English Language: Types and Examples

Author: Manik Joshi

Publisher: Manik Joshi

ISBN:

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 550

View: 506

This Book Covers The Following Topics: (I). What are Nouns (II). Types of Nouns A. Proper Noun B. Common Noun C. Collective Noun D. Material Noun E. Abstract Noun F. Concrete Noun G. Compound Noun H-1. Countable Noun -- Singular Noun H-2. Countable Noun -- Plural Noun I. Uncountable or Mass Noun J. Possessive Noun (III-A). Countable & Uncountable Nouns – Categorization 1. always countable (both singular & plural) | no uncountable 2. always uncountable | no countable 3A. uncountable + countable (both singular & plural) 3B. uncountable + singular 4A. always singular | no plural 4B. always plural | no singular 5A. (a). uncountable | (b). countable (both singular & plural) 5B. (a). countable (singular and plural) | (b). singular 5C. (a). countable (singular and plural) | (b). plural 5D. (a). countable (singular and plural) | (b). singular | (c). plural 5E. (a). always uncountable | (b). always singular 5F. (a). always uncountable | (b). always plural 6. (a). uncountable and countable (singular as well as plural) | (b). countable (singular as well as plural) 7. (a). uncountable | (b). uncountable + countable (singular as well as plural) 8A. (a). uncountable | (b). countable (singular as well as plural) | (c). uncountable + countable (singular as well as plural) 8B. (a). uncountable | (b). countable (both singular and plural) | (c). singular 8C. (a). uncountable | (b). countable (both singular and plural) | (c). plural 9A-1. countable: usually singular 9A-2. uncountable + usually singular 9A-3. (a). uncountable | (b). usually singular 9A-4. (a). uncountable | (b). usually plural 9A-5. (a). usually singular | (b). countable (both singular and plural) 9B-1. countable: usually plural 9B-2. (a). usually plural | (b). countable (both singular and plural) 9C. (a). always singular | (b). always plural 9D. (a). ‘usually singular’ | (b). ‘usually plural’ 9E. Miscellaneous Patterns 10. Additional Countable and Uncountable Nouns (III-B). Nouns with Singular/Plural Verbs 1. uncountable noun + singular/plural verb 2. singular noun + singular/plural verb 3. countable noun (in singular form) + singular/plural verb (III-C1). Formation of Plural Nouns (1). REGULAR PLURAL NOUNS (2). IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS (A). “-y” is changed into “-ies” (B). “-f” and “-fe” is changed into “-ves” (C). “-is” is changed into “-es” (D). “-um” is changed into “-a” (E). “-us” is changed into “-i” (F). “-on/-ian” is changed into “-a” (G). “-ax” / “-ex” is changed into “-ices” (H1). Compound words without dashes (H2). Compound words with dashes (H3). Compound words with a verb (H4). Double Plural (I). “-a” is sometimes changed into “-ae” (J). Change of vowel(s) (J1). “-an” is changed into “-en” (J2). “-oo” is changed into “-ee” (J3). “-o” is changed into “-i” (J4). “-u” is changed into “-ux” (K). Irregular Nouns That Do Not Change When Made Plural (L). Irregular Nouns That Change Substantially (M). Other Irregular Plural Nouns (III-C2). Formation of Nouns from Other Parts of Speech C2-a. Formation of Nouns from Other Nouns C2-b. Formation of Nouns from Adjectives C2-c. Formation of Nouns from Verbs (IV). Nouns and Genders

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language

Author: David Crystal

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108423595

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 583

View: 767

Now in its third edition, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language provides the most comprehensive coverage of the history, structure and worldwide use of English. Fully updated and expanded, with a fresh redesigned layout, and over sixty audio resources to bring language extracts to life, it covers all aspects of the English language including the history of English, with new pages on Shakespeare's vocabulary and pronunciation, updated statistics on global English use that now cover all countries and the future of English in a post-Brexit Europe, regional and social variations, with fresh insights into the growing cultural identities of 'new Englishes', English in everyday use with new sections on gender identities, forensic studies, and 'big data' in corpus linguistics, and digital developments, including the emergence of new online varieties in social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp. Packed with brand new colour illustrations, photographs, maps, tables and graphs, this new edition is an essential tool for a new generation of twenty-first-century English language enthusiasts.

Software Reuse: Advances in Software Reusability

Software Reuse: Advances in Software Reusability

Author: Austria) International Conference on Software Reuse (6th : 2000 : Vienna

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540676966

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 462

View: 450

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Software Reuse, ICSR-6, held in Vienna, Austria, in June 2000. The 26 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The book is divided into topical sections on generative reuse and formal description languages, object-oriented methods, product line architectures, requirements reuse and business modeling, components and libraries, and design patterns.

Collocation - A linguistic view and didactic aspects

Collocation - A linguistic view and didactic aspects

Author: Yvonne Müller

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783638019606

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 18

View: 965

Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of Paderborn, 19 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The following paper deals with collocation. The topic is investigated with a linguistic view, but also didactic aspects should not be completely disregarded, because collocation is a very important topic especially for teachers. They have to know which word goes together with which term and how to explain these relationships to their pupils. The collocational aspect will have its meaning explained. Then a description of how collocations are used will follow. The third part of this paper presents Benson’s understanding of collocation. He distinguishes between the collocations of different word classes. The first section is about lexical collocations, which contains collocations consisting of nouns, verbs, adverbs and adjectives. Then the most common lexical combinations will have their meaning explained. The first given type of collocation consists of verbs and nouns; the second one deals with the collocations of adjectives and nouns and the third section examines collocations of verbs and adverbs, while the last combination consists of adverbs and adjectives. These combinations are the most common lexical collocations, so others should be disregarded. The different kinds of collocations are examined concerning their behaviour in a sentence and the possibility they suggest to be substituted. After this examination the paper summarizes the structure of grammatical collocation. In the next part, Cowie’s understanding of collocation is presented. He distinguishes between restricted and open collocations, which will be explained in this section. The next part of the paper contains some aspects one has to take account of when collocations are translated. Concerning translatability there are three different types of collocations: collocations of complete, partial and of no equivalence. These types are presented and examples are given. Finally, a few suggestions are given on how to teach collocation in school. Therefore, some different suggestions for teaching are given to make allowances for the student’s age and advancement. The paper ends with a short summary and a final reflection.

The Most Productive Word Formation Processes of the English Language

The Most Productive Word Formation Processes of the English Language

Author:

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783638618571

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 15

View: 143

Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,0, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The drumper went on drumping until the drumperism lets him get drumpish.Every time we can form new words with the help of word formation processes. There are many different processes which lead to many different new words. But how can we form such new words? The sentenceThe drumper went on drumping until the drumperism lets him get drumpishconsists of four new or unknown words. I formed these words with the help of a very productive word formation process, called 'derivation'. But what does 'productive' actually mean? Productive in the content of word formation processes means that these processes are responsible for the large part of neologisms (Kortmann 1999: 58). Productive may be also described as “a pattern, meaning that when occasion demands, the pattern may be used as a model for new items.” (Adams 1973: 197). Some processes are more productive than others. This research paper deals with the most productive word formation processes of the English language, namely 'derivation', which includes 'prefixation', 'suffixation' and 'infixation', 'compounding' and 'conversion'. The word formation process 'back formation' is regarded as a borderline case, i.e. it can be counted as a member of the most productive word formation processes or as a member of the so called secondary word formation processes (Schmid 2005: 87). Because of the relation between compounding, especially compound verbs, and back formation I will treat the process in this research paper too. After an introduction of some basic morphological terms as well as a definition of the term 'word formation' I will present the different stages a new formed word has to pass until it can be regarded as a member of the vocabulary because not every new formed word will become established. Afterwards, in the main part of this research paper, I will present these most productive word formation processes named above and give suitable examples in each case. Finally the term 'blocking' will be introduced, i.e. there are some words which just cannot be formed because there is already another word which carries the appropriate meaning and thus 'blocks' the new word (Schmid 2005: 117). In the conclusion I will give an outlook for the secondary word formation processes and a review of words which are included in the dictionary newly.

A Communicative Grammar of English

A Communicative Grammar of English

Author: Geoffrey N. Leech

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0582506336

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 468

View: 468

A Communicative Grammar of English employs a communicative rather than a structural approach to the learning of English grammar. This edition is divided into three parts: Part One: A guide to the use of this book - looks at the way English grammar varies in different types of English, for example 'formal' and 'informal', 'spoken' and 'written'. Part Two: Grammar in use - the central and largest part of the book, presents grammar through the eyes of the communicator and focuses on the uses of grammar rather than on grammatical structure. Part Three: A-Z in English grammar - provides a useful and alphabetically arranged guide to English grammar. This new edition includes more real examples taken from corpus data. Increased emphasis is given to grammar in spoke language, providing a better balance between written and spoken English. Explanations and examples have been made simpler in order to make the grammar more accessible to students.

Language, Cognition and Gender

Language, Cognition and Gender

Author: Alan Garnham

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889198924

Category: Science (General)

Page: 203

View: 684

Gender inequality remains an issue of high relevance, and controversy, in society. Previous research shows that language contributes to gender inequality in various ways: Gender-related information is transmitted through formal and semantic features of language, such as the grammatical category of gender, through gender-related connotations of role names (e.g., manager, secretary), and through customs of denoting social groups with derogatory vs. neutral names. Both as a formal system and as a means of communication, language passively reflects culture-specific social conditions. In active use it can also be used to express and, potentially, perpetuate those conditions. The questions addressed in the contributions to this Frontiers Special Topic include: • how languages shape the cognitive representations of gender • how features of languages correspond with gender equality in different societies • how language contributes to social behaviour towards the sexes • how gender equality can be promoted through strategies for gender-fair language use These questions are explored both developmentally (across the life span from childhood to old age) and in adults. The contributions present work conducted across a wide range of languages, including some studies that make cross-linguistic comparisons. Among the contributors are both cognitive and social psychologists and linguists, all with an excellent research standing. The studies employ a wide range of empirical methods: from surveys to electro-physiology. The papers in the Special Topic present a wide range of complimentary studies, which will make a substantial contribution to understanding in this important area.

Essays on Language Function and Language Type

Essays on Language Function and Language Type

Author: Joan L. Bybee

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027274212

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 480

View: 282

In their subject matter and in their theoretical orientation all the papers in this volume reflect the powerful influence of T. Givón. Most of them deal with questions of morphosyntactic typology, pragmatics, and grammaticalization theory. Many of them are directly based on extensive fieldwork on local languages of the Americas, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. Others are based on statistical analyses of extensive written and spoken corpora of texts.

English Abstract Nouns as Conceptual Shells

English Abstract Nouns as Conceptual Shells

Author: Hans-Jörg Schmid

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110808704

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 468

View: 381

The future of English linguistics as envisaged by the editors of Topics in English Linguistics lies in empirical studies which integrate work in English linguistics into general and theoretical linguistics on the one hand, and comparative linguistics on the other. The TiEL series features volumes that present interesting new data and analyses, and above all fresh approaches that contribute to the overall aim of the series, which is to further outstanding research in English linguistics.