Léon Rosenfeld

Léon Rosenfeld

Author: Anja Skaar Jacobsen

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814452083

Category:

Page: 368

View: 368

Léon Rosenfeld (1904–1974) was a remarkable, many-sided physicist of exceptional erudition. He was at the center of modern physics and was well-known as Niels Bohr's close collaborator and spokesman. Besides he reflected deeply on the history and philosophy of science and its social role from a leftist perspective. As both actor and acute spectator of modern physics and as a polyglot cosmopolitan whose life crossed those of many important people in both the East and West, as well as by virtue of his close collaboration and friendship with Bohr, Rosenfeld was an important figure in twentieth century physics. His biography illuminates the development, popularization, and reception of quantum physics and its interpretation in addition to the development of the political Left. The book draws extensively from previously untapped, unpublished sources in more than five languages.Contents: Physicist of the Second Quantum GenerationRosenfeld in CopenhagenPhysics, Philosophy, and Politics in the 1930sSurviving the War in UtrechtCold War and Political CommitmentBohr's Cold Warrior Readership: Students and professionals studying the history of science.

The Infinite in Mathematics

The Infinite in Mathematics

Author: Felix Kaufmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400997950

Category: Science

Page: 237

View: 464

The main item in the present volume was published in 1930 under the title Das Unendliche in der Mathematik und seine Ausschaltung. It was at that time the fullest systematic account from the standpoint of Husserl's phenomenology of what is known as 'finitism' (also as 'intuitionism' and 'constructivism') in mathematics. Since then, important changes have been required in philosophies of mathematics, in part because of Kurt Godel's epoch-making paper of 1931 which established the essential in completeness of arithmetic. In the light of that finding, a number of the claims made in the book (and in the accompanying articles) are demon strably mistaken. Nevertheless, as a whole it retains much of its original interest and value. It presents the issues in the foundations of mathematics that were under debate when it was written (and in some cases still are); , and it offers one alternative to the currently dominant set-theoretical definitions of the cardinal numbers and other arithmetical concepts. While still a student at the University of Vienna, Felix Kaufmann was greatly impressed by the early philosophical writings (especially by the Logische Untersuchungen) of Edmund Husser!' He was never an uncritical disciple of Husserl, and he integrated into his mature philosophy ideas from a wide assortment of intellectual sources. But he thought of himself as a phenomenologist, and made frequent use in all his major publications of many of Husserl's logical and epistemological theses.

L.I. Mandelstam and His School in Physics

L.I. Mandelstam and His School in Physics

Author: Alexander Pechenkin

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030176853

Category: Science

Page: 259

View: 362

This biography of the famous Soviet physicist Leonid Isaakovich Mandelstam (1889–1944), who became a Professor at Moscow State University in 1925 and an Academician (the highest scientific title in the USSR) in 1929, describes his contributions to both physics and technology. It also discusses the scientific community that formed around him, commonly known as the Mandelstam School. By doing so, it places Mandelstam’s life story in its cultural context: the context of German University (until 1914), the First World War, the Civil War, and the development of the Socialist Revolution (until 1925) and the young socialist country. The book considers various general issues, such as the impact of German scientific culture on Russian science; the problems and fates of Russian intellectuals during the revolutionary and post-revolutionary years; the formation of the Soviet Academy of Science, the State Academy; and the transformation of the system of higher education in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s. Further, it reconstructs Mandelstam’s philosophy of science and his approach to the social and ethical function of science and science education based on his fundamental writings and lecture notes. This reconstruction is enhanced by extensive use of previously unpublished archive material as well as the transcripts of personal interviews conducted by the author. The book also discusses the biographies of Mandelstam’s friends and collaborators: German mathematician and philosopher Richard von Mises, Soviet Communist Party official and philosopher B.M.Hessen, Russian specialist in radio engineering N.D.Papalexy, the specialists in non-linear dynamics A.A.Andronov, S.E. Chaikin, A.A.Vitt and the plasma physicist M.A.Leontovich. This second, extended edition reconstructs the social and economic backgrounds of Mandelstam and his colleagues, describing their positions at the universities and the institutes belonging to the Academy of Science. Additionally, Mandelstam’s philosophy of science is investigated in connection with the ideological attacks that occurred after Mandelstam’s death, particularly the great mathematician A.D.Alexandrov’s criticism of Mandelstam’s operationalism.

Reflections on Death, Dying and Bereavement

Reflections on Death, Dying and Bereavement

Author: William A Smith

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351842075

Category: Psychology

Page: 100

View: 346

The methodology of "Reflections on Death, Dying and Bereavement" is mainly philosophical. It is intended to complement scriptural and theological studies. The volume has five main sections that are further divided by chapter. The first section contains foundational considerations. Since the belief in a continuation of life after death or reunion with deceased loved ones offers consolation to many people, the book examines the possibility of human immortality. Various rational arguments are also presented.

Cosmological Implications of Heisenberg's Principle

Cosmological Implications of Heisenberg's Principle

Author: Julio A Gonzalo

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814675390

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 544

The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered. Contents:Planck, Einstein and MachAbout the Origins of Quantum Mechanics IAbout the Origins of Quantum Mechanics IIAbout the Origins of Quantum Mechanics IIIAbout the Origins of Quantum Mechanics IVIndeterminacy vs UncertaintyThe Universal ConstantsPlanck's Units and Heisenberg–Lemaitre UnitsImplications of a Finite UniverseCosmic Zero-Point EnergyRigorous Solutions of Einstein's Cosmological EquationOn the Evidence for Dark Matter, Dark Energy & Accelerated ExpansionOn Physics and Philosophy Readership: Advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical physics. Key Features:No other lengthy discussion of the cosmological implications is availableThe first quantitative discussion of the zero-point energy of the universe is givenCompact rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM), Open Friedman–Lemaitre (OFL), and mixed universes are discussed in detailKeywords:Big Bang;Cosmology;Heisenberg's PrincipleReview: “For a scholarly book covering quantum mechanics, this book is a highly accessible read. Gonzalo treats the reader to insightful and informative biographies of many giants of 20th century physics, focusing on their accomplishments and the larger metaphysical implications. As Gonzalo notes, quantum mechanics may imply 'an external chooser', making his book a compelling and refreshing critique of the materialistic philosophy which pervades science today.” Casey Luskin Discovery Institute

Sir James Jeans

Sir James Jeans

Author: E. A. Milne

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107623330

Category: Science

Page: 197

View: 627

Originally published in 1952, this book by E. A. Milne examines the life and work of influential astrophysicist Sir James Jeans. The text includes reproductions of correspondence between Jeans and such luminaries as G. H. Hardy and G. E. Hale, and is introduced by a personal memoir by the publisher S. C. Roberts. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in Jeans' work and the history of astrophysics.