Pragmatics and Natural Language Understanding

Pragmatics and Natural Language Understanding

Author: Georgia M. Green

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136492822

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 203

View: 678

This book differs from other introductions to pragmatics in approaching the problems of interpreting language use in terms of interpersonal modelling of beliefs and intentions. It is intended to make issues involved in language understanding, such as speech, text, and discourse, accessible to the widest group possible -- not just specialists in linguistics or communication theorists -- but all scholars and researchers whose enterprises depend on having a useful model of how communicative agents understand utterances and expect their own utterances to be understood. Based on feedback from readers over the past seven years, explanations in every chapter have been improved and updated in this thoroughly revised version of the original text published in 1989. The most extensive revisions concern the relevance of technical notions of mutual and normal belief, and the futility of using the notion 'null context' to describe meaning. In addition, the discussion of implicature now includes an extended explication of "Grice's Cooperative Principle" which attempts to put it in the context of his theory of meaning and rationality, and to preclude misinterpretations which it has suffered over the past 20 years. The revised chapter exploits the notion of normal belief to improve the account of conversational implicature.

Expert Systems and Related Topics

Expert Systems and Related Topics

Author: Marlene A. Palmer

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1878289039

Category: Computers

Page: 170

View: 315

This comprehensive reference to all areas of expert systems and applications, plus advanced related topics, lets you spend your time reading expert systems literature rather than searching for it. It gives you a source of historical perspectives and outlooks on the future of the field. Whether you are a manager, a developer or an end user or researcher, Expert Systems and Related Topics: Selected Bibliography & Guide to Information Sources puts all the sources of expert systems literature at your fingertips.

The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (MITECS)

The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (MITECS)

Author: Robert A. Wilson

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262731444

Category: Psychology

Page: 1106

View: 634

Since the 1970s the cognitive sciences have offered multidisciplinary ways of understanding the mind and cognition. The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (MITECS) is a landmark, comprehensive reference work that represents the methodological and theoretical diversity of this changing field. At the core of the encyclopedia are 471 concise entries, from Acquisition and Adaptationism to Wundt and X-bar Theory. Each article, written by a leading researcher in the field, provides an accessible introduction to an important concept in the cognitive sciences, as well as references or further readings. Six extended essays, which collectively serve as a roadmap to the articles, provide overviews of each of six major areas of cognitive science: Philosophy; Psychology; Neurosciences; Computational Intelligence; Linguistics and Language; and Culture, Cognition, and Evolution. For both students and researchers, MITECS will be an indispensable guide to the current state of the cognitive sciences.

Reversible Grammar in Natural Language Processing

Reversible Grammar in Natural Language Processing

Author: T. Strzalkowski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461527220

Category: Computers

Page: 454

View: 111

Reversible grammar allows computational models to be built that are equally well suited for the analysis and generation of natural language utterances. This task can be viewed from very different perspectives by theoretical and computational linguists, and computer scientists. The papers in this volume present a broad range of approaches to reversible, bi-directional, and non-directional grammar systems that have emerged in recent years. This is also the first collection entirely devoted to the problems of reversibility in natural language processing. Most papers collected in this volume are derived from presentations at a workshop held at the University of California at Berkeley in the summer of 1991 organised under the auspices of the Association for Computational Linguistics. This book will be a valuable reference to researchers in linguistics and computer science with interests in computational linguistics, natural language processing, and machine translation, as well as in practical aspects of computability.

Natural Language Understanding and Cognitive Robotics

Natural Language Understanding and Cognitive Robotics

Author: Masao Yokota

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000733051

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 204

View: 106

In the not so distant future, we can expect a world where humans and robots coexist and interact with each other. For this to occur, we need to understand human traits, such as seeing, hearing, thinking, speaking, etc., and institute these traits in robots. The most essential feature necessary for robots to achieve is that of integrative multimedia understanding (IMU) which occurs naturally in humans. It allows us to assimilate pieces of information expressed through different modes such as speech, pictures, gestures, etc. The book describes how robots acquire traits like natural language understanding (NLU) as the central part of IMU. Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST) is its core, and is based on the hypothesis that NLU is essentially the processing of mental image associated with natural language expressions, namely, mental-image based understanding (MBU). MIDST is intended to model omnisensory mental image in human and to afford a knowledge representation system in order for integrative management of knowledge subjective to cognitive mechanisms of intelligent entities such as humans and robots based on a mental image model visualized as ‘Loci in Attribute Spaces’ and its description language Lmd (mental image description language) to be employed for predicate logic with a systematic scheme for symbol-grounding. This language works as an interlingua among various kinds of information media, and has been applied to several versions of the intelligent system interlingual understanding model aiming at general system (IMAGES). Its latest version, i.e. conversation management system (CMS) simulates MBU and comprehends the user’s intention through dialogue to find and solve problems, and finally, provides a response in text or animation. The book is aimed at researchers and students interested in artificial intelligence, robotics, and cognitive science. Based on philosophical considerations, the methodology will also have an appeal in linguistics, psychology, ontology, geography, and cartography. Key Features: Describes the methodology to provide robots with human-like capability of natural language understanding (NLU) as the central part of IMU Uses methodology that also relates to linguistics, psychology, ontology, geography, and cartography Examines current trends in machine translation

Natural Language Processing for Online Applications

Natural Language Processing for Online Applications

Author: Peter Jackson

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 902724992X

Category: Computers

Page: 256

View: 683

This text covers the technologies of document retrieval, information extraction, and text categorization in a way which highlights commonalities in terms of both general principles and practical concerns. It assumes some mathematical background on the part of the reader, but the chapters typically begin with a non-mathematical account of the key issues. Current research topics are covered only to the extent that they are informing current applications; detailed coverage of longer term research and more theoretical treatments should be sought elsewhere. There are many pointers at the ends of the chapters that the reader can follow to explore the literature. However, the book does maintain a strong emphasis on evaluation in every chapter both in terms of methodology and the results of controlled experimentation.

Natural Language Processing with Spark NLP

Natural Language Processing with Spark NLP

Author: Alex Thomas

Publisher: O'Reilly Media

ISBN: 9781492047735

Category: Computers

Page: 367

View: 552

If you want to build an enterprise-quality application that uses natural language text but aren’t sure where to begin or what tools to use, this practical guide will help get you started. Alex Thomas, principal data scientist at Wisecube, shows software engineers and data scientists how to build scalable natural language processing (NLP) applications using deep learning and the Apache Spark NLP library. Through concrete examples, practical and theoretical explanations, and hands-on exercises for using NLP on the Spark processing framework, this book teaches you everything from basic linguistics and writing systems to sentiment analysis and search engines. You’ll also explore special concerns for developing text-based applications, such as performance. In four sections, you’ll learn NLP basics and building blocks before diving into application and system building: Basics: Understand the fundamentals of natural language processing, NLP on Apache Stark, and deep learning Building blocks: Learn techniques for building NLP applications—including tokenization, sentence segmentation, and named-entity recognition—and discover how and why they work Applications: Explore the design, development, and experimentation process for building your own NLP applications Building NLP systems: Consider options for productionizing and deploying NLP models, including which human languages to support

Handbook of Pragmatics

Handbook of Pragmatics

Author: Jef Verschueren

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027257680

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1906

View: 501

The Manual section of the Handbook of Pragmatics, produced under the auspices of the International Pragmatics Association (IPrA), is a collection of articles describing traditions, methods, and notational systems relevant to the field of linguistic pragmatics; the main body of the Handbook contains all topical articles. The first edition of the Manual was published in 1995. This second edition includes a large number of new traditions and methods articles from the 24 annual installments of the Handbook that have been published so far. It also includes revised versions of some of the entries in the first edition. In addition, a cumulative index provides cross-references to related topical entries in the annual installments of the Handbook and the Handbook of Pragmatics Online (at https://benjamins.com/online/hop/), which continues to be updated and expanded. This second edition of the Manual is intended to facilitate access to the most comprehensive resource available today for any scholar interested in pragmatics as defined by the International Pragmatics Association: “the science of language use, in its widest interdisciplinary sense as a functional (i.e. cognitive, social, and cultural) perspective on language and communication.”

Pragmatics

Pragmatics

Author: Yan Huang

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199577767

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 491

View: 252

Pragmatics is one of the rapidly growing fields in contemporary linguistics. Huang provides an accessible and comprehensive introduction to the central topics in pragmatics - implicature, presupposition, speech acts, and deixis.