Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn

Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn

Author: Pieter C. van der Kruit

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319108766

Category: Science

Page: 698

View: 471

Jacobus C. Kapteyn (1851-1922) was a Dutch astronomer who contributed heavily to major catalogs of star positions, such as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung and the Harvard-Groningen Durchmusterung, and arranged extensive international collaboration through his Plan of Selected Areas. He contributed to the establishment of statistical astronomy and structure and dynamics of the Sidereal System. All aspects of Kapteyn’s life are discussed, from his birth in Barneveld, the Netherlands, to his death in Amsterdam, and his entire resume of scientific achievements in between. Kapteyn had some conflicts with others in his field, especially after the world became divided on how to handle scientific contributions from Germany post-World War I. Both Kapteyn's struggles and achievements are written against the backdrop of both the historical context of the world at that time as well as the scientific one.

Willem de Sitter

Willem de Sitter

Author: Jan Guichelaar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319983370

Category: Science

Page: 278

View: 227

This is a thorough, very readable and excellently illustrated biography of Willem de Sitter (1872-1934), one of the most influential astronomers of his time, and also a co-author and correspondent of Einstein. Authored by a physicist and skilled writer, the book gives a beautiful and accessible description of the physics debated by Einstein and de Sitter, as well as the latter's alternative cosmological model, later known as the De Sitter Universe. But this is just part of a fascinating and varied life story involving numerous contributions to astronomy, as well as many places and personalities of early 20th century physics. The book will appeal to all those interested in astronomy and physics and their history.

Pioneer of Galactic Astronomy: A Biography of Jacobus C. Kapteyn

Pioneer of Galactic Astronomy: A Biography of Jacobus C. Kapteyn

Author: Pieter C. van der Kruit

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030554231

Category: Science

Page: 317

View: 643

This non-technical biography of Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn (1851-1922) presents to the general reader the scientific life of the astronomer who pioneered the studies of the structure of the Milky Way Galaxy. In telling Kapteyn’s story the author weaves in astronomy basics and uses modern astronomical images to show the developments of astronomical research from Kapteyn’s times to the present. In particular the study of the distribution of stars in space has now culminated with spectacular new insights coming from the astrometric satellite GAIA, which is receiving much public attention today. The biography shows how Kapteyn’s ideas influenced prominent astronomers worldwide. He is prominent as designer of the Kapteyn Universe, the alternative to the large system found by Harlow Shapley. He is the discoverer of Kapteyn’s Star, still the second fastest moving star in the sky, which is now one of the nearest stars with a planet in the habitable zone. This fascinating hybrid of astronomy history and popular astronomy tells the story of the astronomy professor without an observatory who founded the first astronomical laboratory specializing in measuring photographic plates exposed elsewhere. Kapteyn took astronomy out of cataloguing stars to measuring distances and velocities in order to study their spatial distribution, systematic motions (Kapteyn’s Star Streams) and the equilibrium between their gravity and motions. His legacy includes, in addition to the first application of Galactic structure and dynamics, Jan Hendrik Oort, the famous astronomer from Leiden, who as a student was so impressed by Kapteyn’s lectures that he decided to become an astronomer.

The Life and Works of J. C. Kapteyn

The Life and Works of J. C. Kapteyn

Author: E. Robert Paul

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401119405

Category: Science

Page: 92

View: 216

Among the most influential, world-renowned scientists during the early decades of the twentieth century was the Dutch astronomer Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn (1851-1922). Kapteyn's influence resulted from and contributed to the golden age of Dutch science. In the words of the brilliant English astrophysicist, Arthur S. Eddington: `Holland has given many scientific leaders to the world: it is doubtful whether any other nation in proportion to its size can show so fine a record. J.C. Kapteyn was among the most distinguished of its sons -- a truly great astronomer'. The present text is an English translation of Kapteyn's 1928 (Dutch) biography by his daughter Henrietta Hertzsprung-Kapteyn. While the original biography suffers from -- but in many ways is also enriched by -- the emotional excesses of a loving daughter writing of her famous father, this new translation provides an annotated assessment of Kapteyn as family man, scientist and world leader. This new volume also opens up to a much wider reading public many of the enormously rich contributions, not only of Kapteyn the man but also of the Dutch, to the emergence of astronomy as a major intellectual force in the world. Perhaps equally important, the translated biography reproduces many biographical and technical details from Kapteyn's correspondence with numerous other scientists and scholars. Access to the Kapteyn biography becomes an archival treasure for future studies dealing with Kapteyn himself, as well as with the history of both modern and Dutch astronomy and with the rise of international astronomy.

Anton Pannekoek: Ways of Viewing Science and Society

Anton Pannekoek: Ways of Viewing Science and Society

Author: Chaokang Tai

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9789048535002

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page:

View: 474

Anton Pannekoek (1873-1960), prominent astronomer and world-renowned socialist theorist, stood at the nexus of the revolutions in politics, science and the arts of the early twentieth century. His astronomy was uniquely visual and highly innovative, while his politics was radical. This volume collects essays on Pannekoek and his contemporaries at the crossroads of political history, the history of science and art history.

The Legacy of J.C. Kapteyn

The Legacy of J.C. Kapteyn

Author: Piet C. van der Kruit

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401098649

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 704

Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn (1851-1922) of the University of Groningen was one of the foremost astronomers of his time, resulting in a leading role internationally of Dutch astronomy throughout the twentieth century. This volume, which is the proceedings of a special `legacy' symposium at the celebration of the 385th anniversary of the University of Groningen, addresses Kapteyn's influence on the development of modern astronomy through studies of his pioneering work on statistical astronomy and the Structure of the Sidereal System, and his leadership in establishing international collaborations, in particular the Plan of Selected Areas. In addition to historical studies related to Kapteyn's person, work, international collaborations and organisational efforts, the volume discusses the influence of Kapteyn on the internationalisation of astronomy and on contemporary astronomy. It also provides an inventory of Kapteyn's correspondence.