The British Military Revolution of the 19th Century

The British Military Revolution of the 19th Century

Author: Daniel R. LeClair

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 9781476674995

Category: History

Page: 287

View: 197

 From the Crimean War through the Second Boer War, the British Empire sought to solve the "Great Gun Question"--to harness improvements to ordnance, small arms, explosives and mechanization made possible by the Industrial Revolution. The British public played a surprising but overlooked role, offering myriad suggestions for improvements to the civilian-led War Office. Meanwhile, politicians and army leaders argued over control of the country's ground forces in a decades-long struggle that did not end until reforms of 1904 put the military under the Secretary of State for War. Following the debate in the press, voters put pressure on both Parliament and the War Office to modernize ordnance and military administration. The "Great Gun Question" was as much about weaponry as about who ultimately controlled military power. Drawing on ordnance committee records and contemporary news reports, this book fills a gap in the history of British military technology and army modernization prior to World War I.

The British Army in the 19th Century

The British Army in the 19th Century

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 1717512380

Category:

Page: 86

View: 843

*Includes pictures *Includes contemporary accounts *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading "Believe me, nothing except a battle lost can be half so melancholy as a battle won." - The Duke of Wellington at Waterloo Today, the British Army is one of the most powerful fighting forces in the world. Its highly trained professional soldiers are equipped with the most advanced military technology ever made. Its international interventions, while controversial both at home and abroad, are carried out with incredible professionalism and little loss of life among British servicemen and servicewomen. Naturally, the history and traditions behind this army are also impressive. Britain has not been successfully invaded in centuries. Its soldiers once created and defended a global empire, and during the Second World War, it was one of the leading nations standing against the brutal Axis forces, leading the way in the greatest seaborne invasion in military history. But it was not always like this. For most of its history, Britain was a patchwork of competing nations. England, the largest of its constituent countries, was often relatively weak as a land power compared with its European neighbors. Moreover, Britain's armies, like those of the other European powers, were neither professional nor standing armies for hundreds of years. The 18th century was a tumultuous period for the British army, one often overlooked in popular accounts of British history. It began with the formal unification of Britain-a period of great success for the nation's armies-led by one of Britain's greatest generals, the Duke of Marlborough. This was followed by a period of global activity and military reform as the British Empire expanded. Though naval power played a greater part in this success, it led to new obligations and challenges for the army. Even as the empire soared to new heights, the 18th century was one that was initially marked by triumph but ended in failure and decline. The late 1770s and early 1780s brought about a disastrous war for control of the American colonies, during which the British Army was ultimately defeated by colonial militiamen allied with French forces. In the aftermath came a period of decline and complacency, leaving the nation ill-prepared for war with Napoleon and France. Wellington famously referred to his men as the scum of the earth, even as he took pride in their skill and successes. This was an army that took rough material and shaped it into something refined and effective. The demoralized army emerging after the American Revolution became something new and powerful, respected around the world, giving Britain its era of greatest glory. Ironically, the army was a victim of its own success. After having proven its strength against Napoleon and emerging as one of the most respected military and political players in Europe, the British Army took a backseat to what its leaders considered more pressing needs, even as the soldiers were relied on to be garrisoned in colonies across the world. As the Industrial Revolution took hold, its factories and mines drove a staggering period of economic and technological growth. A global empire, supported by the might of the Royal Navy, provided the raw materials and markets the economy needed, as well as military bases and political influence in every corner of the globe. Success was a self-fulfilling prophecy, and Britain's economic and military might let the nation expand its power, absorbing more territory and resources. This ensured the need for a substantial army, as well as the need for the resources to maintain it, but it was not all smooth sailing. There were challenges to be met and periods of complacency to overcome. This book examines the history of the British Army during some of history's most pivotal eras. Along with pictures and a bibliography, you will learn about the British army like never before.

Queen Victoria's Army

Queen Victoria's Army

Author: Charles River Charles River Editors

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 1717317715

Category:

Page: 52

View: 278

*Includes pictures *Includes contemporary accounts *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading World domination is a vision most kings, queens, and emperors can only dream of, and is a path less visited for good reason. It is one that requires above all, patience, as well as skill, tenacity, and an impenetrable plan of action. The only one to ever come close to this impossible level of prestige is the legendary British Empire. It was under the reign of King Henry VII of England that this ambitious idea of global expansion was first planted. In March of 1496, the king granted an exploratory charter to John Cabot, who would pilot a successful voyage that resulted in the occupation of an uninhabited island in Newfoundland. Though Cabot's second voyage ended in disaster, the courage and will he displayed during these endeavors inspired English explorers to organize more ventures and take to the seas themselves, as they hoped to see just how far they could push the envelope. Today, the British Army is one of the most powerful fighting forces in the world. Its highly trained professional soldiers are equipped with the most advanced military technology ever made. Its international interventions, while controversial both at home and abroad, are carried out with incredible professionalism and little loss of life among British servicemen and servicewomen. Naturally, the history and traditions behind this army are also impressive. Britain has not been successfully invaded in centuries. Its soldiers once created and defended a global empire, and during the Second World War, it was one of the leading nations standing against the brutal Axis forces, leading the way in the greatest seaborne invasion in military history. During the 19th century, Britain was at the height of its power, having proven its strength against Napoleon and emerging as one of the most respected military and political players in Europe. As the Industrial Revolution took hold, its factories and mines drove a staggering period of economic and technological growth. A global empire, supported by the might of the Royal Navy, provided the raw materials and markets the economy needed, as well as military bases and political influence in every corner of the globe. Success was a self-fulfilling prophecy, and Britain's economic and military might let the nation expand its power, absorbing more territory and resources. This ensured the need for a substantial army, as well as the need for the resources to maintain it, but it was not all smooth sailing. There were challenges to be met and periods of complacency to overcome. Queen Victoria's Army: The History of the British Army during the Victorian Era examines the history of the British Army in the late 19th century. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the British Army during the Victorian Era like never before.

War and the World

War and the World

Author: Jeremy Black

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300147698

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 931

In this brilliant history of warfare, Jeremy Black is the first to approach the entire modern era from a comprehensive global perspective. He provides a wide-ranging account of the nature, purpose, and experience of war over the past half-millennium and argues the importance of viewing the rise of European power within a wider international context. Investigating both land and sea warfare, Black examines weaponry, tactics, strategy, and resources as well as the political, social, and cultural impact of conflict. The book takes issue with established interpretations, not least those that emphasize technology, and challenges the view that European military and naval forces were dominant throughout the period. European mastery at sea did not always translate into equivalent success on land, says Black, and many non-European military systems—the Ottomans in their expansionist years, Babur and the Mughals in sixteenth-century India, and the Manchu in China in the following century, for example—were formidable in their own right. The author contends that in the nineteenth century, the focal period of Europe’s military revolution, the international military balance shifted decisively. Black shows how military developments, combined with political, economic, and ideological shifts, influenced the nature and success of European imperialism. Linking debates on early modern history with those of more recent centuries, he offers a fundamental reexamination of the role of war in the progress of nations.

Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon, 1807-1815

Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon, 1807-1815

Author: Rory Muir

Publisher:

ISBN: 0300064438

Category: History

Page: 466

View: 986

This account of the final years of Britain's long war against Revolutionary and Napoleonic France places the conflict in a new - and wholly modern - perspective. Rory Muir looks beyond the purely military aspects of the struggle to show how the entire British nation played a part in the victory. His book provides a total assessment of how politicians, the press, the crown, civilians, soldiers and commanders together defeated France. Beginning in 1807 when all of continental Europe was under Napoleon's control, the author traces the course of the war throughout the Spanish uprising of 1808, the campaigns of the Duke of Wellington and Sir John Moore in Portugal and Spain, and the crossing of the Pyrenees by the British army, to the invasion of southern France and the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. Muir sets Britain's military operations on the Iberian Peninsula within the context of the wider European conflict, and examines how diplomatic, financial, military and political considerations combined to shape policies and priorities. Just as political factors influenced strategic military decisions, Muir contends, fluctuations of the war affected British political decisions. The book is based on a comprehensive investigation of primary and secondary sources, and on a thorough examination of the vast archives left by the Duke of Wellington. Muir offers vivid new insights into the personalities of Canning, Castlereagh, Perceval, Lord Wellesley, Wellington and the Prince Regent, along with fresh information on the financial background of Britain's campaigns. This vigorous narrative account will appeal to general readers and military enthusiasts, as well as to students of early nineteenth-century British politics and military history.

Armies of the East India Company 1750–1850

Armies of the East India Company 1750–1850

Author: Stuart Reid

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781780963600

Category: History

Page: 85

View: 341

Contrary to popular belief, the capture of India was not accomplished by the British Army, but by the private armies of the East India Company, which grew in size to become larger than that of any European sovereign state. This is the history of its army, examining the many conflicts they fought, their equipment and training, with its regiments of horse, foot and guns, which rivalled those of most European powers. The development of their uniforms, which combined traditional Indian and British dress, is illustrated in detail in this colourful account of the private band of adventurers that successfully captured the jewel of the British Empire.

The Military Revolution and Revolutions in Military Affairs

The Military Revolution and Revolutions in Military Affairs

Author: Mark Charles Fissel

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110657593

Category: History

Page: 381

View: 864

The Military Revolution and Revolutions in Military Affairs updates two central debates in military history--the one surrounding the concept of military revolution, and the one on military affairs--whilst advancing original research in both fields. Only a handful of publications consider the military revolution and the RMA in tandem. This book breaks new ground conceptually and appeals to an exceptionally large and diverse readership. Comparative revisionist studies of the military revolution and RMA better enable us to comprehend the historical continuum and reveal the new RMA for what it is. And for what it is shortly to become. This book presents original contributions within the "epicentre" of the military revolution debate, the 1500s, with an emphasis on gunpowder revolution (offensively and defensively). The connections with the Revolution in Military Affairs are then made explicit by scholars, a practitioner, and an analyst, with an emphasis on airborne lethal autonomous weapons systems. This is a chronologically broad and unique methodological approach to a historical debate that begs for clarification as we enter an era where killer robots will almost certainly take from humans their monopoly on violence.

Glass of the British Military, Ca. 1755-1820

Glass of the British Military, Ca. 1755-1820

Author: Olive R. Jones

Publisher: National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada

ISBN: UCBK:B000145225

Category: British

Page: 134

View: 559

Archaeologists and curators working on military sites have to address the problems of what kinds of objects were used by officers and men, how and when they were used and whether they were privately owned or supplied by the military. To help both these groups and for the interest of the general public an illustrated catalogue of glassware used by the British military in Canada from ca. 1755 to 1820 was compiled. The catalogue focusses on the Seven Years' War (1756-63), the American Revolution (1776-83) and the War of 1812-14. Categories used include drinking by type of beverage, storage and serving vessels, drinking glasses, wine glass coolers and finger glasses; eating vessels for condiments, serving vessels and desserts; canteens; health and personal care; and lighting. Material on ownership, sources of supply, and details on production are also included.

The Military Revolution

The Military Revolution

Author: Geoffrey Parker

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521479584

Category: History

Page: 292

View: 818

This is a new edition of Geoffrey Parker's much-admired illustrated account of how the West, so small and so deficient in natural resources in 1500, had by 1800 come to control over one-third of the world. Parker argues that the rapid development of military practice in the West constituted a 'military revolution' which gave Westerners an insurmountable advantage over the peoples of other continents. This edition incorporates new material, including a substantial 'Afterword' which summarises the debate which developed after the book's first publication.

British Redcoat vs French Fusilier

British Redcoat vs French Fusilier

Author: Stuart Reid

Publisher: Osprey Publishing

ISBN: 1472812433

Category: History

Page: 80

View: 354

Providing a unique glimpse into the experiences of regular British and French infantry during the French and Indian War, Stuart Reid reveals what it was like to fight in three battles at the height of the struggle for Canada: La Belle-Famille, the Plains of Abraham, and Sainte-Foy. In 1755, Britain and France both decided to escalate a low-intensity frontier war that had started the previous year by dispatching regular troops to their respective colonies in North America. Far from home, both sides' equipment and tactics were initially more suited to the European theatre. As the war ground on, however, combat doctrine evolved as both armies learned lessons that would be utilized by succeeding generations of soldiers. Packed with first-hand accounts, dramatic illustrations and a technical analysis of the changing nature of warfare on the American continent, this book puts readers in the shoes of the combatants who played a pivotal role in shaping the future of North America.