The History of Poland Since 1863

The History of Poland Since 1863

Author: Roy Francis Leslie

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521275016

Category: History

Page: 524

View: 803

This is an account of the evolution of Poland from conditions of subjection to its reconstruction in 1918, development in the years between the two World Wars, and reorganisation after 1945. It begins at a time when Poland was still suffering from the legacy of the eighteenth-century Partitions and burdened with problems of sizeable ethnic minorities, inadequate agrarian reforms and sluggish industrial development sustained by foreign capital. It traces the history through to independence and then to the transformation of the country in the last thirty years. Although many of the problems of the past have now disappeared, industrialisation, the structure of peasant agriculture, and political association with the Soviet Union present the Polish People's Republic with difficulties that have yet to be resolved. Substantial achievements in an ethnically homogeneous state must be set against substantial discontents. This history provides the English-speaking reader with a scholarly synthesis based mainly on literature in Polish and other East European languages. It will be essential reading for historians of Eastern Europe and for those interested in modern Polish society.

The Constitution of The Republic Of Poland

The Constitution of The Republic Of Poland

Author: The Republic of Poland

Publisher: The Republic of Poland

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 97

View: 570

The Constitution of The Republic Of Poland Of 2nd April, 1997. As published in Dziennik Ustaw No. 78, item 483. Also available here: http://www.sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/konst.htm (Sejm) in Polish, English, French, German, and Russian. I am not the author of this content, I merely created an Epub from the content of the link above, made available for free by The Republic of Poland. The reason why I made this available here as epub format is to make free information easily available in a convenient way for anyone who might be interested.

Introduction to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland

Introduction to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland

Author: Bogumił Szmulik

Publisher: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Wymiaru Sprawiedliwości

ISBN: 9788366344525

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 966

Introduction to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland by Bogumił Szmulik and Jarosław Szymanek is a cohesive and no-nonsense overview serving as an unassuming and reader-friendly compendium of the current Polish Constitution. With each chapter, the authors gradually introduce readers to the world of legal and political constitutional complexities. Without overloading readers with information, they conduct a comprehensible if accessible narration as well as providing intelligible but nuanced and critical accounts of difficult and controversial matters. Despite its modest title, their work is much more than a simple introduction to the Polish Constitution. Readers will find here not only an approachable analysis of the contents of the 1997 Constitution but will also become familiar with the practice of its implementation as well as with the trajectories of related debates and proposals for future changes. Such a comprehensive approach on the part of the authors makes the book suitable not only for constitutional lawyers, i.e., professionals, but for a much wider group of general readers, both at home and abroad. After all, each of us – regardless of our type of education or scope of interests – ought to be conversant with the constitution of our country. As regards international readers, the English translation of the book may well be the only wide-ranging publication available presenting the Polish fundamental statute. Prof. dr hab. Genowefa Grabowska Authored by Bogumił Szmulik and Jarosław Szymanek, the monograph is an invaluable and fascinating example of a scholarly publication. The book specifies and explains the solutions – often very general and challenging in terms of interpretation – adopted by the legislators in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. The mode of disquisition is informed by didacticism and systematism, making the publication exceptionally valuable, given the wide range of readers currently interested in constitutional matters. Concise and simultaneously packed with information, Introduction to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland is also likely to constitute an important point of reference while solving theoretical and practical dilemmas connected with the Polish fundamental statute. dr hab. Paweł Sobczyk, prof. UO

Republic of Poland: Arrangement Under the Flexible Credit Line and Cancellation of the Current Arrangement-Staff Report; Press Release; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Poland

Republic of Poland: Arrangement Under the Flexible Credit Line and Cancellation of the Current Arrangement-Staff Report; Press Release; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Poland

Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 9781498366175

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 66

View: 816

KEY ISSUES Background: Poland’s strong fundamentals and sound policies helped it to successfully withstand several bouts of market turbulence and paved the way for economic recovery. While Poland has benefited from its continued transformation into a more open and dynamic economy, its substantial trade and financial linkages with global markets, combined with still-large financing needs, also make it vulnerable to external shocks. Outlook and risks: With only modest growth in its trading partners, economic activity in Poland is expected to remain moderate in the near term. Risks remain tilted to the downside amid concerns about a protracted slowdown in the euro area, continued geopolitical tensions in the region, and uncertainty surrounding normalization of monetary policy in the United States. Domestically, the risk of continued disinflation remains high. Flexible Credit Line (FCL): Against this background, the authorities are requesting a new two-year precautionary FCL arrangement with proposed lower access in the amount of SDR 15.5 billion (918 percent of quota) and cancellation of the current arrangement, approved on January 18, 2013. Poland’s improved economic fundamentals and increased policy buffers have reduced financing needs. However, external risks remain elevated. In this context, the authorities consider that a new FCL in the requested amount would provide an important insurance against external risks, help sustain market confidence, and support their economic strategy. At the same time, the authorities consider that the substantial reduction in access sends a clear signal of their intention to fully exit from the FCL once external risks recede. In staff’s view, Poland continues to meet the qualification criteria for access under the FCL arrangement. Fund liquidity: The impact of the proposed commitment of SDR 15.5 billion on Fund liquidity would be manageable. Process: An informal meeting to consult with the Executive Board on a possible FCL arrangement for Poland was held on December 19, 2014.

Republic of Poland

Republic of Poland

Author: International Monetary Fund

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 9781455202546

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 54

View: 453

The Republic of Poland’s 2010 Article IV Consultation shows that Poland is the only European Union country to have escaped a recession in 2009 owing to its limited reliance on exports and well-capitalized and profitable banking system. Like its regional peers, it experienced spillovers from the crisis through both real and financial channels, in particular the latter, as an abrupt slowdown in capital inflows caused a credit crunch and a sharp decline in investment. The banking sector is well buffered, but risks related to foreign-exchange lending should be curbed.

Republic of Poland: 2021 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Poland

Republic of Poland: 2021 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Poland

Author: International Monetary

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 9798400203688

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 92

View: 813

The Polish economy has rebounded strongly, with policy actions limiting the damage from the pandemic-induced recession by supporting employment and avoiding unnecessary bankruptcies. While the pandemic continues to take a toll on lives, the economy has been less impacted by successive waves of the pandemic.