When Christians Were Jews

When Christians Were Jews

Author: Paula Fredriksen

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300240740

Category: Religion

Page: 256

View: 504

A compelling account of Christianity’s Jewish beginnings, from one of the world’s leading scholars of ancient religion How did a group of charismatic, apocalyptic Jewish missionaries, working to prepare their world for the impending realization of God's promises to Israel, end up inaugurating a movement that would grow into the gentile church? Committed to Jesus’s prophecy—“The Kingdom of God is at hand!”—they were, in their own eyes, history's last generation. But in history's eyes, they became the first Christians. In this electrifying social and intellectual history, Paula Fredriksen answers this question by reconstructing the life of the earliest Jerusalem community. As her account arcs from this group’s hopeful celebration of Passover with Jesus, through their bitter controversies that fragmented the movement’s midcentury missions, to the city’s fiery end in the Roman destruction of Jerusalem, she brings this vibrant apostolic community to life. Fredriksen offers a vivid portrait both of this temple-centered messianic movement and of the bedrock convictions that animated and sustained it.

Summary of Paula Fredriksen's When Christians Were Jews

Summary of Paula Fredriksen's When Christians Were Jews

Author: Everest Media,

Publisher: Everest Media LLC

ISBN: 9798822514409

Category: Religion

Page: 19

View: 948

Please note: This is a companion version & not the original book. Sample Book Insights: #1 The city of Jerusalem was the center of Jewish life for nearly 500 years, from the Persian period until the Roman Empire destroyed it in 70 C. E. #2 The house of David and the house of God came together in Jewish tradition. The Second Temple was rebuilt by the returning exiles and the Hasmoneans, and it reached its height of splendor under Herod the Great. #3 The Hellenization of Jerusalem by the Seleucids was a conflict between Greek and Jewish cultures. Some Jews welcomed these changes, while others resisted them. The Maccabean Revolt marked the beginning of Roman involvement with Judea. #4 The Roman general Pompey conquered Jerusalem in 63 B. C. E. He entered the sanctuary of the temple, in Jewish eyes thus defiling it. He tore down the city walls and deprived Jerusalem of revenue-yielding territories. But soon, the Roman emperor Octavian would conquer Mark Antony and become ruler of Rome, and Herod would be appointed king of Judea.

Summary of Justo L. González's The Story of Christianity, Vol. 1

Summary of Justo L. González's The Story of Christianity, Vol. 1

Author: Everest Media,

Publisher: Everest Media LLC

ISBN: 9781669357629

Category: Religion

Page: 88

View: 296

Please note: This is a companion version & not the original book. Sample Book Insights: #1 The church was never disconnected from the world around it. The first Christians were first-century Jews, and it was as such that they heard and received the message. Then the faith spread, first among other Jews, and eventually among Gentiles both within and beyond the borders of the Roman Empire. #2 Palestine has always been a land of strife and suffering. It was invaded and conquered by Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE, and its inhabitants were repeatedly subjugated by different empires over the following centuries. #3 The conquests of Alexander sought to spread Greek civilization, but many Jews saw in it a threat to their faith in the One God. In the history of Palestine from the time of Alexander’s conquest to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, we can see the constant struggle between Hellenizing pressures and Jewish faithfulness. #4 The Romans justified their imperial conquests by claiming that they were bringing civilization to the world. They built new cities and temples, and placed all of them under Roman rule and guidance. They were very tolerant of the religion and customs of conquered people.

When Christians Were Jews (That Is, Now)

When Christians Were Jews (That Is, Now)

Author: Wayne-Daniel Berard

Publisher: Picador

ISBN: 1561012807

Category: Religion

Page: 276

View: 952

Documents the author's own identity as a half-Jewish person adopted by Christian parents while inviting Christians to rediscover their Jewish heritage, exploring Jesus's identity as a member of the Jewish faith while discussing how the Gospel of Mark can inform modern Christians about how Jewish traditions were influenced by historical events. Original.

The Talmud tested by Scripture

The Talmud tested by Scripture

Author: Alexander McCaul

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9783755776697

Category: Religion

Page: 807

View: 817

Salvation is of the Jews. Amongst all the religions systems existing in the world, there are but two deserving of attentive consideration, and they are both of Jewish origin, and were once exclusively confined to the Jewish nation. They are now known by the names of Judaism and Christianity; but it must never be forgotten that the latter is as entirely Jewish as the former. The Author of Christianity was a Jew. The first preachers of Christianity were Jews. The first Christians were all Jews; so that, in discussing the truth of these respective systems, we are not opposing a Gentile religion to a Jewish religion, but comparing one Jewish creed with another Jewish creed. Neither in defending Christianity, do we wish to diminish aught from the privileges of the Jewish people; on the contrary, we candidly acknowledge that we are disciples of the Jews, converts to Jewish doctrines, partakers of the Jewish hope, and advocates of that truth which the Jews have taught us.

The Gospel of Matthew and Christian Judaism

The Gospel of Matthew and Christian Judaism

Author: David C. Sim

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9780567086419

Category: Religion

Page: 364

View: 723

In this meticulously researched study, David C. Sim reconstructs the Matthean community at the time the Gospel was written and traces its full history. Dr. Sim demonstrates that the Matthean community should be located in Antioch in the late first century, and he argues that the history of this community can only be understood in the context of the factionalism of the early Christian movement. He identifies two distinctive and opposing Christian perspectives: the first represented by the Jerusalem church and the Matthean community, which maintained that the Christian message must be preached within the context of Judaism; and the second represented by Paul and the Pauline communities, in which Christians were not expected to observe the Jewish law. Dr. Sim reconstructs not only the conflict between Matthew's Christian Jewish community and the Pauline churches, but also its further conflicts with the Jewish and Gentile worlds in the aftermath of the Jewish war.

Jesus Uncensored

Jesus Uncensored

Author: Bernard Starr

Publisher: Omnihouse Publishing

ISBN: 061576634X

Category: Bible

Page: 212

View: 507

(GRAYSCALE EDITION) Most people today acknowledge that Jesus was Jewish. Yet a surprising number of Christians and Jews hold the belief that Jesus converted to Christianity at some point in his life or that he actually launched a new religion. In Jesus Uncensored psychologist, journalist and college professor Bernard Starr draws on a wealth of sources, including a close reading of biblical texts, to portray Jesus' lifelong commitment to Judaism, the synagogue, and the Torah. He also reveals that Paul, the founder of Christianity, never gave up his Jewish identity nor, like Jesus, did he intend to launch a new religion. If indeed Jesus was an ardent practicing Jew and preached only to Jews, why then did classical artworks depict Jesus and his fellow Jews as blond, fair-skinned Gentiles? Why did artists transform a community of orthodox Jews into latter-day northern European Christians? Starr takes the reader on a fascinating journey through Medieval and Renaissance art (including a walking tour of New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art). He argues that the ethnic cleansing of Jesus and the world around him -so vividly depicted in hundreds of paintings-created a powerful platform for anti-Semitism. Contributing to this was the fact that throughout much of their history Christians were forbidden to own, read, or translate their Bible into a native language, which prevented them from discovering the firm Jewish foundation of Christianity. If the populace had access to the Gospels, says Starr, they surely would have noticed that the "multitudes" of Jesus' followers were Jews. Starr then turns to the crucial question, "Did the Jews kill Jesus?"-a charge that has echoed with deadly consequences since the crucifixion. Carefully scrutinizing the Gospels' account of Jesus' arrest and trial and the events leading up to them, he arrives at a startling conclusion, one that is certain to provoke wide discussion and debate. The accusation that Jews killed Jesus is at the root of virulent and enduring anti-Semitism. What might the thoroughly Jewish Jesus have said to church leaders, monarchs, and other despots who launched murderous acts such as the Crusades, the Inquisition, and genocides in his name? Starr tackles this question in a mock trial, in which Jesus asks these perpetrators, "How do you justify your violent acts based on my teachings and mission?" Mindful that many Christians today are eager to let go of long-standing antagonisms, Starr courageously appeals to fellow Jews to drop the "Jesus Phobia" and accept Jesus as a faithful Jew--without having to embrace the claim that he was the Messiah. Citing the pantheon of false Jewish Messiahs throughout the centuries, many of whom were destructive to Judaism, Starr questions why some "Messiahs" are still revered for their teachings while Jesus is rejected. Finally, Starr explores the popular novel The Da Vinci Code, which, like classical artworks, begins with a Jewish story but promptly converts it into a Christian one. Starr shows how The Da Vinci Code gets recoded when Rabbi Jesus' wife and daughter are authentically recast. In examining the realities of Jesus' life, Starr sheds new light on the history of anti-Semitism and on the destructive forces that have alienated Christians and Jews. His aim is to heal the rift between Christianity and Judaism and to help bring forth a new spirit of reconciliation. Broad in its scope yet intimate in its authoritative detail, Jesus Uncensored will forever change your understanding of Jesus, Judaism, and Christianity.

The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire

The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire

Author: Judith Lieu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135081959

Category: History

Page: 214

View: 785

In the period of Roman domination there were communities of Jews, some still in Palestine, some dispersed in and around the Roman Empire; they had to face at first the world-wide power of the pagan Romans and later on the emergence of Christianity as an Empire-wide religion. How they coped with these dramatic changes and how they influenced the new forms of religious life that emerged in this period provide the main themes of The Jews Among Pagans and Christians. Essays by the leading scholars in the field together with the introduction by the editors, offer new approaches to understanding the role of Judaism and the pattern of religious interaction characteristic of the period.

Jews and Christians

Jews and Christians

Author: James D. G. Dunn

Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing

ISBN: 0802844987

Category: Religion

Page: 418

View: 762

This volume contains papers from the second Durham-Tubingen Research Symposium on Earliest Christianity and Judaism that help clarify the extent to which we can speak of the parting of the ways between Christianity and Judaism. Twelve internationally respected scholars carefully analyze the chief Jewish and Christian documents and traditions from the period A.D. 70-135, drawing out what they say about the mutual relations between early Christianity and Judaism and the light they shed on the diverging trajectories of these two major religious traditions.

The Great Betrayal

The Great Betrayal

Author: Sheldon W. Liebman

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 9781532660030

Category: Religion

Page: 412

View: 435

In the view of many contemporary scholars, both Jesus and Judaism have been misrepresented by the church for the past two thousand years. Their main point is that Judaism was not a superficial, rigid, and outdated religion, and Jesus did not reject it. In fact, along with his disciples, he remained a Law-abiding Jew his entire life. However, as Christianity developed from a Jewish sect in the first century AD to the official religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century, the church was transformed, Jesus was redefined, and both Jews and their religion were repudiated and marginalized. In short, both Christians and Jews were deeply affected by what many scholars now call the de-Judaization of Jesus. This book is an attempt to correct the traditional theological and scholarly misinterpretations of Jesus and Judaism that emerged over the first four centuries of the life of the church.

Salvation is from the Jews (John 4:22)

Salvation is from the Jews (John 4:22)

Author: Aaron Milavec

Publisher: Liturgical Press

ISBN: 0814659896

Category: Religion

Page: 201

View: 728

Growing up in an ethnic suburb in Cleveland, Aaron Milavec was an impressionable adolescent whose religious and cultural influences made it natural for him to ?pity, blame, and despise Jews.? All of that began to change in 1955 when Mr. Martin, a Jewish merchant, hired Milavec as a stock boy. Milavec?s initial anxieties over working for a Jew surprisingly gave way to profound personal admiration. This, in turn, plunged Milavec into a troubling theological dilemma: ?How could God consign Mr. Martin to eternal hellfire due to his ancestral role in the death of Jesus when it was clear that Mr. Martin would not harm me, a Christian, even in small ways?? This book is not for the faint-hearted. Most Christians imagine that the poison of anti-Judaism has been largely eliminated. In contrast, Milavec reveals how this poison has gone underground?disfiguring not only the role of Israel in God?s plan of salvation but also horribly twisting the faith, the forgiveness, and the salvation that Christians find through Jesus Christ. This painful realization serves as the necessary first step for our healing. At each step of the way, Milavec?s sure hand builds bridges of mutual understanding that enable both Christians and Jews to cross the chasm of distrust and distortion that has infected both church and synagogue over the centuries. In the end, Milavec securely brings his readers to that place where Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity can again be admired as sister religions intimately united to one other in God?s drama of salvation.?For the last fifteen years Aaron Milavec has done groundbreaking scholarly work on the first century Jewish-Christian document, the Didache, and he is a veteran of local Christian-Jewish dialogue. His Salvation Is from the Jews is a stirring work that incorporates provocative theological perspectives along with numerous insights from recent official Church teaching. The author is specifically concerned that Church leaders, both lay and ordained, follow through with the trajectory defined in the study document, Covenant and Mission. In addition, he seeks to foster a more honest and soul-searching dialogue in living rooms, in congregations, and on the web.? Louise Barnes Vera Office for Ecumenical and Interfaith Relations Cincinnati, Ohio ?A personal, theological, and historical journey, Milavec's volume offers numerous reflections that challenge, that provoke, and that inspire.? Amy-Jill Levine E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Professor of New Testament Studies Vanderbilt Divinity School and Graduate Department of Religion Nashville, Tennessee ?The integration of the new understanding of the Christian-Jewish relationship that emerged from Vatican II?s Nostra Aetate still awaits completion. Aaron Milavec has moved ahead that process to a significant degree in Salvation Is from the Jews: Saving Grace in Judaism and Messianic Hope in Christianity. He has brought together the best of the biblical and theological scholarship on this question in the past several decades from with the official Catholic statements in a comprehensive framework that breaks new ground.? John T. Pawlikowski, O.S.M., Ph.D. Director, Catholic-Jewish Studies Program Catholic Theological Union Chicago, Illinois ?With extraordinary candor, Aaron Milavec challenges traditionally held Christian misconceptions about the Jewish Faith and sets the record straight. Salvation Is from the Jews makes it abundantly clear that unlike its relationship to other religions, Christianity shares an intimate bond with Judaism?a common spiritual pilgrimage that deserves to be affirmed and celebrated.? Keith F. Pecklers, S.J. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome?Dr. Milavec has elegantly and passionately reframed the dialogue between Judaism and Christianity in purely theological terms and has taken into account both the past and the contemporary scene. He has created a Christian theology of Judaism and it is one well in advance of what is presently in hand.? Jacob Neusner Distinguished Service Professor of the History and Theology of Judaism Senior Fellow, Institute of Advanced Theology Bard College

Why Christians Should Care about Their Jewish Roots

Why Christians Should Care about Their Jewish Roots

Author: Nancy Petrey

Publisher: Energion Publications

ISBN: 9781631991035

Category: Religion

Page: 41

View: 960

Jesus was Jewish. Most of the Bible was written by Jews and in Hebrew. Most of the early Christian leaders were Jews. Even Paul, called the Apostle to the Gentiles, would visit the synagogue first and preach there, and he wrote with great passion about his hope for his own people. Many modern Christians have forgotten about their Jewish roots. They may not formally rip pieces out of their Bibles, but much like the early Christian heretic Marcion, they act as though these portions of scripture no longer apply. They don't read them, study them, preach from them, or apply them. As a result, they often do not understand the New Testament correctly. Nancy Petrey has a passion both for the Jewish people and for calling Christians to understand their Jewish roots. In the pages of this short book, you'll get a taste of the way in which Christian history and belief has Jewish roots. You'll be blessed if you learn to recognize those roots.